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Full text of "Richard Frotscher's almanac and garden manual for the southern states"

Historic, archived document 

Do not assume content reflects current 
scientific knowledge, policies, or practices 



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INTRODUCTION. 



ALMANA 




-AND- 




-FOR THE- 



SOUTHERN STATES. 



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DESIGNATED TO GIVE DIRECTIONS FOR THE CULTIVATION OF 



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Entered according to Act of Congress by Richaed Feotschee, in the office of the 
Librarian at Washington, in the year 1877. 



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Warehouse, 15 & 17 Du Maine Street, 



NEAR THE FRENCH MARKET, 



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PBI8S JOB PRINT, 48 BIENVILLE ST. 



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Mauppnf 






* 



For a series of years I distributed to my patrons, who applied to me 
for advice, Almanacs published in the North and Northwest and writ- 
ten principally with regard to those sections of the country. 

The directions which these works contained respecting the cultiva- 
tion of vegetables, &c, although excellent for the regions spoken of, 
were almost useless, and in many cases totally unfeasible in the South, 
where the salubrity of the climate, the almost total absence of severe 
frosts, the practicability of raising successive similar or diversified crops 
in one season, and many other important natural causes, render the 
handling of the soil and times for planting necessarily very different. 

Having been a practical gardener myself, and, owing to my seed 
business, being brought in daily contact with the New Orleans Market 
Gardeners, most of whom I supply with seeds, and having always taken 
a deep interest in the cultivation of vegetables, I felt that I was quali- 
fied to give directions and information of a more practical value to 
Southern cultivators, than those found in the Almanacs and Seed Lists 
published by others who had not had these advantages. 

These considerations influenced me a few years since to compile 
and publish an Almanac and Garden Manual, to present to the public 
giving hints as to the proper time and methods of cultivating vegetables 
in the South, and so supply a want long felt in this portion of the 
country. The very flattering reception given to the first edition of my 
Almanac and Garden Manual, encouraged me to continue its publica- 
tion, and I now have the pleasure of giving to my friends and customers 
the number for 1880. 

I have received many letters from all parts of the South endorsing 
the correctness and utility of the information given in these pages, and 
accompanied with numberless compliments in reference to my perse- 
verance and enterprise, and the usefulness of my book, for all of which 
I return hearty thanks. 

It has ever been my aim, by integrity and strict attention to busi- 
ness, to merit the confidence of customers and the community in 
general, and from the very liberal patronage bestowed on me, I may 
without presumption flatter myself that I have succeeded in doing so. 

Hoping that my Almanac and Garden Manual may prove yearly of 
more and more assistance to the Gardeners of the South, and assuring 
my patrons that a continuance of their favors will be duly appreciated, 

I remain, 

Yours truly, 

KICHABD FKOTSCHEE. 



MM 



Richard Frotscher's Almaxac and Garden Manual 



SEEDS BY MAIL. 



Seeds can be sent by mail to any part of! the United States in pack- 
ages, not exceeding four pounds, at sixteen cents per pound or one cent 
per ounce or fraction thereof. On seeds ordered, in papers or by the 
ounce ]I prepay the postage, except on peas, beans and corn. This 
refers to large sized papers which are sold at one dollar per dozen. 
When ordered by the pound, sixteen cents per pound postage has to be 
added to the price of the seeds. Peas, beans and corn thirty cents 
postage per quart. 

All packages are put up in the most careful manner, and every 
precaution taken to insure their reaching their destination in safety. 
Purchasers living at any place where my seeds are not sold, are re- 
quested to write to me to obtain their supplies. This will be more pro- 
fitable than to buy from country stores where seeds left on commission 
are often kept till all powers of germination are destroyed. As Seed 
Merchants, who give out their goods on commission, rarely collect 
what is not sold, oftener than once in every twelve or eighteen months, 
and as Lettuce, Spinach, Parsnip, Carrots and many other seeds will 
either not sprout at all or grow very imperfectly if kept over a summer 
in the South, to buy and plant such is but money, time and labor wasted. 

Here in our climate, where we plant garden vegetables as freely 
in autumn as in spring, and where often the seeds have to be put in 
the ground when the weather is very warm, it is an indispensable 
necessity to have perfectly fresh seeds. 

My arrangements with my growers are made so that I receive the 
new crop, expressly cleaned for me, as soon as it is matured. The 
varieties which are not raised in the North, I order from Europe, and 
have them shipped so as to reach me about the beginning of August, 
just the time they are needed for fall planting. By following this plan 
I have always a full supply of fresh seeds of undoubted germinating 
qualities, while dealers who sell on commission have only those left 
from the winter previous. 

It can not be too well impressed on the minds of all cultivators of 
vegetables, that seeds kept through a summer in this climate icill not 
grow, and that all who use such seeds will be losers. 

All seeds that leave my establishment are thoroughly tested, and 
warranted to grow. 

Having received a great many complaints that letters which con- 
tained money addressed to me never reached me, I would caution my 
customers not to send any money in letters, without registering same. 
By sending one Dollar or upward the cost, ten cents, can be charged to 
me. The cheapest and surest way is money order or draft, but where 
they can not be had, letters have to be registered, which can be done 
at anv Post Office. 



For the Southern States. 



5 



1st Month. 



JANUARY. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of Southern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Last Quarter 5d. 

New Moon lid. 

First Quarter 19d. 

Full Moon 27d. 



Ik. 27m. Morning. 

5k. 18m. Evening. 

Ik. 19 ;u. Morning. 

4k. 51m. Morning. 



DAY 

OF 

Month &Week 



Sua 

rises. 

h. m. 



Sun 

sets. 

h. m. 



Moon 
r. & s. 

h. m. 



CHR.OiSOL.OGY 

— OF — 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



1 


Tkurs. 


7 09 


4 51 


9 52 


2 


Frid. 


7 08 


4 52 


10 49 


3 


Sat. 


7 08 


4 52 


11 45 



Union of Ireland witk Great Britain, 1801. 
Gen. Wolfe born, Westerkam, Kent, 1727. 
Eliot Warburton, Hist. Novelist, died, 1852. 



1) Sunday after New Year. 



Matth. 2. 



Day's length, 9h. 44m. 



4 


Sbsbi. 


7 08 


4 52 


morn. 


5 


Mon. 


7 07 


4 53 


12 26 


6 


Tnes. 


7 07 


4 53 


1 27 


7 


Wed. 


7 07 


4 53 


2 27 


8 


Tkurs. 


7 06 


4 54 


3 29 


9 


Frid. 


7 06 


4 54 


4 38 


10 


Sat. 


7 06 


4 54 


5 50 



Introd'n of Silk manuf es into Europe, 1536. 
Vigil of Epipkany. 

Epipkany, or 12tk day, old Ckristmas Day. 
Robert Nicoll, poet, born, 1814. [1877. 

Battle of N. O., 1815, &Inaug'nGov. Nickolls. 
Car. Lucr. Hersckel, Astronomer, died, 1848. 
1st steamb't New Orleans fr. Pittsburg, 1812. 



2) 1st Sunday after Epiphany. Luke 2. Day's length, 9h. 50m. 



First Lottery drawn in England, 1569. 

St. Arcadius, Martyr. 

G. Fox, Founder Sect of Quakers, died, 1690. 

"Great Frost," in England began, 1205. 

Tkomas Crofton Croker, born, 1798. 

Edmond Spenser, Poet, died, 1599. 

Mozart, Musician, born, 1756. 



11 


§ND. 


7 05 


4 55 


sets. 


12 


Mon. 


7 04 


4 56 


5 46 


13 


Tues. 


7 03 


4 57 


6 44 


14 


Wed. 


7 03 


4 57 


7 43 


15 


Tkurs. 


7 02 


4 58 


8 58 


16 


Frid. 


7 01 


4 59 


9 58 


17 


Sat. 


7 01 


4 59 


10 54 



3) 2d Sunday after Epiphany. 



John 2. 



Day's length, lOh. 0m. 



18 


Sun. 


7 00 


5 00 


11 45 


19 


Mon. 


7 00 


5 00 


morn. 


20 


Tues. 


6 59 


5 01 


12 40 


21 


Wed. 


6 58 


5 02 


1 32 


22 


Tkurs. 


6 58 


5 02 


2 29 


23 


Frid. 


6 57 


5 03 


3 26 


24 


Sat. 


6 56 


5 04 


4 19 



Festival of St. Peter's Ckair, at Rome. 
James Watt, born, 1736. 
Coldest day in tke centurj 7 , 1838. 
St. Agnes, "Virgin Martyr, 304. 
Francis Bacon, born, 1561. 
Tkankegiving for victory of 8tk, 1815. 
Frederick, tke Great, born, 1712. 



4) Septuagesima Sunday. 



Matth. 20. 



Day's length, lOh. 34m. 



25 


Sun. 


6 55 


5 05 


5 14 


St. Paul's Day. 




26 


Mon. 


6 55 


5 05 


6 01 


Louisiana seceded, 1861. 




27 


Tues. 


6 54 


5 06 


rises. 


Admiral Lord Hood, died, 1816. 




28 


Wed. 


6 53 


5 07 


6 52 


Hen-y VIII, died, 1547. 




29 


Tkurs. 


6 52 


5 08 


7 59 


Emanuel de Swedenborg, born. 1688- 


-89. 


30 


Frid. 


6 51 


5 09 


9 10 


King Ckarles I, bekeaded, 1649. 




31 


Sat. 


6 50 


5 12 


10 25 


Ben Joknson, born, 1574. 





Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5640— January 9. Kosh-codesh Shebath. 



mv.,XA 






JL 



■mm i 



6 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



2d Month. 



FEBRUARY. 



29 Dayj 



Calculated, for the Latitude of Southern. States, 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Last Quarter. . .- 3d. lOh. 16m. 

New Moon lOd. oh. 57m. 

First Quarter ; 17d. lOh. 24ru. 

Full Moon 25d. 8h. Oin. 



Forenoon. 
Morning. 
Evening. 
Morning. 



sun Sun 

rises i sets. 
of 

Month i Weeki h. m. J n. m. 



Moon 
r. £ s. 

h. m. 



CHRO.VOLOGY 

— OF — 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



5 ) SexagesLma Sunday. 



Luke 8. 



Day's length, lOh. 22m. 



1 


Sua. 


6 49 


5 11 


11 28 


"Washington elected President. 1789. 




Mon. 


6 49 


5 11 


morn. 


Purification of the Blessed Virgin. [Candle- 


3 


Tues. 


6 48 


5 12 


12 26 


Henry Cromwell, born. 1627. [mas dav. 




Wed. 


6 47 


5 13 


1 34 


Delegates from Confederate States meet at 


- 
5 


Thurs. 


6 46 


5- 14 


2 33 


Ole Bull, born. 1810. [Montgomery, Ala. 1861. 


6 


Frid. 


6 45 


5 15 


3 29 


Charles II. King of England, died, 1685. 


7 


Sat. 


6 44 


o la 


4 22 


Charles Dickens, born, 1812. 



6.) Quinquagesima Sunday. 



Luke 18. 



Day's length. lOh. 34m. 



8 


§uis. 


6 43 


5 17 


5 20 


9 


Mon. 


6 42 1 


5 18 


6 01 


10 


Tues. 


6 41 


5 19 


sets. 


11 


Wed. 


6 40 


5 20 


6 52 i 


12 


lhurs. 


6 39 


5 21 


/ ol 


13 


Fiid. 


6 3S 


5 22 


8 5Q 


14 


Sat. 


6 37 


5 23 


9 59 



Mary Queen of Scots, beheaded, 1587. 

David R?zzio. murdered, 1565 — 66. 

MARDI GRAS, in N. O. Shrove Tuesday. 

Ash Wednesday. 

Abraham Lincoln, born, 1809. 

St. Gregory. II, Pope, 631. 

St. Valentine's Dav. 



7) 1st Sunday in Lent. 



Matth. 4. 



Dav's length. lOh. 48m. 



15 


§1111. 


6 36 


5 24 


11 06 


16 


Mon. 


6 35 


5 25 


morn. 


17 


Tues. 


6 34 


5 26 


12 06 


18 


Wed. 


6 33 


5 27 


12 55 


19 


Thurs. 


6 32 


5 28 


1 36 


20 


Frid. 


6 31 


5 29 


2 26 


21 


Sat. 


6 30 


5 30 


3 14 



Galilei Galileo, Astronomer, born, 1564. 

Dr. Kane. Amer. Arctic Explorer, died, 1857. 

Columbia, S. C, burned, 1865. 

Pope Gregory. V, died 999. 

Eliz. Carter, classical scholar, died. 1806. 

U. G<?ghan & T. Conner, felon poets, hanged, 

Pierre du Bose. born. 1623. [1749. 



8'i 2d Sunday in Lent. 



Matth. 15. 
1 — 



Day's length, llh. 2m. 



22 


Suii. 


6 29 


5 31 


4 04 


23 


Mon. 


6 28 


5 32 


4 41 


24 


Tues. 


6 27 


5 33 


5 24 


25 


Wed. 


6 26 


5 31 


rises. 


26 


Thurs. 


6 25 


5 35 


6 54 


27 


Frid. 


6 24 


5 36 


8 02 


28 


Sat. 


6 23 


5 37 


9 06 



George Washington, born. 1732. 

Battle of Buena Vista, 1847. 

St. Matthias, Apostle. 

Dr. Kucan, born. 1729. 

Thomas Moore. Poet, died, 1852. 

Longfellow, born, 1807. [1447. 

Humphrey. Duke of Gloucester, murdered, 



9 '■ 3d Sunday in Lent. 



Luke 11. 



Day's length, llh. 16m. 



\ 



29 |§uu. I 6 22 I 5 38 110 18 I Leap Day. 



Jevrish Festivals and Fasts. — 5640- 
Eosh-codesh Adar: 21. Sochor: 



-February 7. Shekolim ; 12. and 13. 
25. Taanith Esther ; 26. Purim. 



s& 



For the Southern States. 



3rd Month. 



MARCH 



31 Days. 



Calculated for tl\e Latitude of Southern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Last Quarter . . 3d. 

New Moon lOd. 

First Quarter 18d. 

Full Moon 26d. 



5h. 45m. Evening. 

7h. 25m. ETening. 

7h. 15m. Evening. 

8h. lm. Morning. 






DAV 
OF 

Month &Week 



Sun 

rises. 

h. m. 



Sun 

sets. 

h. m. 



Moon 
r. & s. 

h. m. 



CHRONOLOGY 

— OF — 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



1 


Mon. 


6 21 


5 39 


11 28 


2 


Tues. 


6 20 


5 40 


morn 


3 


Wed. 


6 19 


5 41 


12 33 


4 


Tburs. 


6 18 


5 42 


1 28 


5 


Frid. 


6 17 


5 43 


2 13 


6 


Sat. 


6 16 


5 44 


2 52 



1st number of the "Spectator" publ'd, 1711. 
Territory of Dakota, organized, 1861. 
Edmund Waller, Poet, born, 1805. 
Abraham Lincoln, inaugurated, 1861. 
1st Locomotive run through Brit, tube, 1830. 
Great financial excitement, 1863. 



lO) 4th Sunday in Lent. 



John 6. 



Day's length, llh. 30m. 



7 


Sun. 


6 15 


5 45 


3 42 


8 


Mon. 


6 14 


5 46 


4 33 


9 


Tues. 


6 13 


5 47 


5 18 


10 


Wed. 


6 11 


5 48 


sets. 


11 


Thurs. 


6 10 


5 49 


7 12 


12 


Frid. 


6 09 


5 50 


8 12 


13 


Sat. 


6 08 


5 51 


9 12 



Blanchard, Aeronaut, died, 1809. 

King William, III, of England, died, 1702. 

William Cobbett, born, 1762. 

The Forty Martyrs of St. Sebaste, 320. 

1st daily paper, "Daily Courant," Brit. 1702. 

St. Gregory the Great, Pope, 604. 

Discov'y of planet Uranus, by Herschel, 1781. 



11) 5th Sunday in Lent. 



John 8. 



Day's length, llh. 46m. 



14 


Sun. 


6 07 


5 52 


10 01 


15 


Mon. 


6 06 


5 53 


10 48 


16 


Tues. 


6 05 


5 54 


11 41 


17 


,Wed. 


6 03 


5 55 


morn. 


18 


Thurs. 


6 02 


5 57 


12 31 


19 


Frid. 


6 01 


5 58 


1 28 


20 


Sat. 


6 00 


6 29 


2 14 



Andrew Jackson, born, 1767. 

Julias Caesar, assassinated, B. C, 44. 

Prince Hohenlohe's miraculous cures, 1823. 

St. I atrick, Apostle of Ireland 

Edward, King and Martyr, 978. 

St. Joseph's Day. 

Vesta, discovered, 1807. 



12) Palm Sunday. 



Matth. 21. 



Day's length, 12h. 2m. * 



21 


Sun. 


5 59 


6 01 


2 29 


22 


Mon. 


5 58 


6 02 


3 24 


23 


Tues. 


5 57 


6 03 


4 01 


24 


Wed. 


5 54 


6 04 


4 31 


25 


Thurs. 


5 54 


6 06 


5 01 


26 


Frid. 


5 53 


6 07 


rises. 


27 


Sat. 


5 52 


6 08 


7 57 



Louisiana ceded to France, 1800. 

J. W. von Goethe, German Poet, died, 1832. 

Peter the Cruel, King of Castile, died, 1369. 

Mahomet, II, born, 1430. 

Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 

Good Friday. 

Vera Crnz captured, 1847. 



13) Easter Sunday. 



Mark 16. 



Day's length, 12h. 18m. 



28 


Sun. 


5 51 


6 09 


9 08 


Easter Sunday. 


29 


Mon. 


5 50 


6 10 


10 23 


Mrs. Fitzherbert, died, 1837. 


30 


Tues. 


5 49 


6 11 


11 28 


Dr. William Hunter, died, 1783. 


31 


Wed. 


5 48 


6 12 


morn. 


Beethoven, died, 1827. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5640— March 6. Poroh ; 13. Kosh-codesh 
Nisan and Hachodesh ; 20. Sabbath Hagodol ; 26. Erev Pesah ; 27. and 

28. first days of Pesah. 



-*~-ft* 



, llLI»W» 



8 KlCHAKD 


Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 


4th Month. 




APRIL. 30 Days. 


Calculated 


for tf\e Latitude of Southern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Last Quarter 2d. 12h. 51m. Morning. 

New Moon ...» 9d. 9h. 46m. Forenoon. 

First Quarter 17d. lh. 53m. Afternoon. 

Full Moon 24d. 5h. 29m. Evening. 



CHRONOLOGY 

— OF — 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



DAY 
OP 

Month & Week 


Sun 

rises. 

la. m. 


Sun 

sets. 

h. m. 


Moon 
r. &s. 

la. m. 


1 

2 
3 


Thurs. l 
Frid. 

Sat. 


5 47 
5 46 
5 45 


6 13 
6 14 
6 15 


12 30 

1 18 

2 01 



Earthquake at Melbourne, 1871. 
Jefferson, born, 1743. 
Washington Irving, born, 1783. 



14) 1st Sunday after Easter. 



John 20. 



Day's length, 12h. 34m. 



4 


Sun. 


5 43 


6 17 


2 34 


Oliver Goldsmith, died, 1774. 


5 


Mori. 


5 42 


6 18 


3 13 


St. Irgernach, of Ireland, 550. 


6 


Tues. 


5 41 


6 19 


3 52 


Battle of Shiloh, 1862. 


7 


Wed. 


5 40 


6 20 


4 19 


St. Francis Xavier, Missionary, born, 1506. 


8 


Thurs. 


5 39 


6 21 


4 41 


Louisiana admitted to the Union, 1812. 


9 


Frid. 


5 38 


6 22 


sets. 


General R. E. Lee, surrendered, 1865. 


10 


Sat. 


5 37 


6 23 


7 57 


St. Bademus, Abbot, Martyr, 376. 



15) 2d Sunday after Easter. 



John 10. Day's length, 12h. 48m. 



11 


Sun. 


5 36 


12 


Mon. 


5 35 


13 


Tues. 


5 34 


14 


Wed. 


5 33 


15 


Thurs. 


5 32 


16 


Frid. 


5 31 


17 


Sat'. 


5 30 



6 24 
6 25 
6 26 
6 27 
6 28 
6 29 
6 30 



8 55 

9 41 

10 39 

11 32 
morn. 

12 33 
1 19 



Geo. Canning, born, 1770. . [Sumter. 

First gun of the Civil War fired, 1861, at Fort 

Sydney Lady Morgan, died, 1859. 

Lincoln, assassinated, 1865. 

George Calvert, Lord Baltimore, died, 1632. 

Battle of Culloden, 1746. 

Dr. Benjamin Franklin, died, 1790. 



16) 3d Sunday after Easter. 



John 16. 



Day's length, 13h. 2m. 



18 


Sun. 


5 29 


6 31 


1 51 


Shakespeare, born, 1564. 






19 


Mon. 


5 28 


6 32 


2 20 


Battle of Lexington, 1775. 






20 


Tues. 


5 27 


6 33 


2 53 


E. Barton, "Maid of Kent," executed 


, 1534. 


21 


Wed. 


5 26 


6 34 


3 20 


Confederate Victory at Plymouth, 


N. 


C, 1863. 


22 


Thurs. 


5 25 


6 35 


3 45 


Madam De Stael, born, 1766. 






23 


Frid. 


5 24 


6 36 


4 13 


Shakespeare, died, 1616. 






24 


Sat. 


5 23 


6 37 


rises. 


Oliver Cromwell, born, 1599. 







17) 4th Sunday after Easter. John 16. Day's length, 13h. 16m. 



25 


Sun. 


5 22 


6 38 


8 12 


St. Mark's Day. 


26 


Mon. 


5 21 


6 39 


9 25 


David Hume, born, 1711. 


27 


Tues. 


5 20 


6 40 


10 32 


Sir Wm. Jones, Poet and Scholar, died, 1794. 


28 


Wed. 


5 19 


6 49 


11 29 


Monroe, born, 1758. 


29 


Thurs. 


5 18 


6 48 


morn. 


King Edward, IV, of England, born, 1441. 


30 


Frid. 


5 17 


6 47 


12 21 


; Louisiana purchased from France by the U. S. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5640— April 2. 3. Last days of Pesah : 11. 12. 
Eosh-codesh Iyar ; 29. Lag Leomor. . 



For the Southern States. 



( J 



5th Month. 



MAY. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for tf\e Latitude of Southern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Last Quarter Id. 8h. 31m. 

New Moon 9d. 12h. 55m. 

First Quarter 17d. 5h. 2m. 

Full Moon 24d. Ih. 17m. 

Last Quarter 30d. 5h. 32m. 



Morning. 
Morning. 
Morning. 
Morning. 

Evening. 



DAY 
OF 

Month & Week 


Sun 
rises. 

h. m. 


Sun 

sets. 

h. m. 


Moon 
r. & s. 

h. in. 


CHROIOLOGY 

—OF — 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 


1 Sat. 5 16 6 44 12 58 St. Phillip and St. James, Apostles. 



18) 5th Sunday after Easter. John 16. Day's length, 13h. 13m. 

"William Camden, born, 1551. 

Discovery of the Holy Cross, by St. Helena. 

Dr. Isaac Barrow, English divine, died, 1677. 

Emperor Justinian, born, 482. 

Ascension Day. 

St. Benedict, II, Pope, Confessor, 686. 

Stonewall Jackson, died, 1863. 

19) 6th Sunday after Easter. John 15. Day's length, 13h. 40m. 



2 


Sun. 


5 15 


6 45 


1 29 


3 


Mon. 


5 14 


6 46 


1 53 


4 


Tues. 


5 14 


6 46 


2 19 


5 


Wed. 


5 13 


6 47 


2 44 


6 


Thurs. 


5 12 


6 48 


3 15 


7 


Frid. 


5 11 


6 49 


3 51 


8 


Sat. 


5 10 


6 50. 


4 15 



9 


Sun. 


5 10 


6 50 


sets. 


Battle of Spotsylvania, 1864. 




10 


Mon. 


5 09 


6 51 


8 40 


Pacific Rail Road finished, 1869. 




11 


Tues. 


5 08 


6 52 


9 38 


Madame Bicamire, died, 1849. 




12 


Wed. 


5 07 


6 53 


10 32 


St. Pancras, Martyr, 30 4. 




13 


Thurs. 


5 06 


6 54 


11 16 


Jamestown, Va., settled, 1607. 




14 


Frid. 


5 05 


6 55 


11 57 


Battle of Crown Point, 1775. 




15 


Sat. 


5 05 


6 55 


morn. 


St. Isidore, died, 1170. 





20) Whit Sunday. 



John 14. 



Day's length, 13h. 52m. 



16 


Sun. 


5 04 


6 56 


12 31 


17 


Mon. 


5 03 


6 57 


1 03 


18 


Tues. 


5 02 


6 58 


1 30 


19 


Wed. 


5 02 


6 58 


2 07 


20 


Thurs. 


5 01 


6 59 


2 34 


21 


Frid. 


5 01 


6 59 


3 08 


22 


Sat. 


5 00 


7 00 


3 34 



Sir William Petty, born, 1623. 

J. Jay, died, 1829. 

Napoleon I, elected Emperor, 1804. 

St. Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury, 988. 

Hawthorn, died, 1864. 

Columbus, died, 1506. 

Title of Baronet first conferred, 1611. 



21) Trinity Sunday. 



John 3. 



Day's length, 13h. 52m. 



23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 



811 in. 


4 59 


7 01 


3 58 


Mon. 


4 58 


7 02 


rises. 


Tues. 


4 58 


7 02 


9 02 


Wed. 


4 57 


7 03 


9 52 


Thurs. 


4 57 


7 03 


10 36 


Frid. 


4 56 


7 04 


11 14 


Sat. 


4 56 


7 04 


11 42 



Napoleon I, crowned King of Italy, 1805. 

Bishop Jewel, born, 1522. 

Battle of Winchester, 1864. 

Fort Erie captured, 1813. 

Corpus Christi. 

Noah Webster, died, 1843. 

Paris burned, 1871 . 



22) 1st Sunday after Trinity. Luke 16. Day's length, 14k. 10m. 

Peter, the Gre <t, of Russia, born, 1672. 
Joan of Arc, burned, 1431. 

Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5640— May 11. Eosh-Codesh Siwan; 16. 

and 17. Shebu'oth 



30 


Sun. 


4 55 


7 05 


morn. 


31 


Mon. 


4 55 


7 05 


12 16 



BEfi 



sMHHmSBM 






10 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



6th Month. 



JUNE. 



30 Days. 



Calculated for tr\e Latitude of Southern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

New Moon ...... 7d. 

First Quarter l5d. 

Full Moon 22d. 

Last Quarter 29d. 



4h. 


33m. 


Afternoon 


4h. 


20m. 


Afternoon 


8h. 


24m. 


Morning. 


4h. 


35m. 


Morning. 



DA'S 

OF 

Month &Week 



Sun 
rises. 

h. m. 



Sun 
sets. 

b. m. 



Moon 
r. & s. 

h. m. 



CHRONOLOGY 

— OF — 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



1 


Tues. 


4 54 


7 06 


12 46 


2 


Wed. 


4 54 


7 06 


1 26 


3 


Thurs. 


4 53 


7 07 


1 59 


4 


Frid. 


4 53 


7 07 


2 33 


5 


Sat. 


4 52 


7 09 


3 08 



Battle of Seven Pines, 1862. 

Battle of Cold Harbor, 1861. 

S. A. Douglas, died, 1861. [Robsart, 1550. 

Lord R. Dudley, Earl of Leicester, marr'd A. 

J. Pradier, Sculptor, died, 1852. . 



23) 2nd Sunday after Trinity. Luke 14. Day's length, 14h. 16ni. 

Surrender of Memphis, Tenn. , 1862. 

First American Congress, at New York, 1765. 

Emperor Nero, died, 68, Rome. 

Charles Dickens, died, 1870. 

Battle of Big Bethel, 1861. 

Sir John Franklin, died, 1847. 

Harriett Martineau, Novelist, born, 1802. 

24) 3rd Sunday after Trinity. Luke 15. Day's length, 14h. 20m. 



6 


Sun. 


4 52 


7 08 


3 45 


7 


Mon. 


4 51 


7 09 


sets. 


8 


Tues. 


4 51 


7 09 


8 10 


9 


Wed. 


4 51 


7 09 


9 11 


10 


Thurs. 


4 50 


7 10 


9 45 


11 


Frid. 


4 50 


7 10 


10 20 


12 


Sat. 


4 50 


7 10 


10 56 



13 


§un. 


4 50 


7 10 


11 22 


14 


Mon. 


4 50 


7 10 


11 52 


15 


Tues. 


4 50 


7 10 


morn. 


16 


Wed. 


4 49 


7 11 


12 28 


17 


Thurs. 


4 49 


7 11 


1 01 


18 


Frid. 


4 49 


7 11 


1 37 


19 


Sat. 


4 49 


7 11 


2 24 



General Scott, born, 1786. 

St. Basil, the Great, 379. 

Magna Charter, 1215. 

Edward I, of England, born, 1239. 

Battle of Bunker Hill, 1775. 

War declared against Great Britain, 1812. 

Xersarge sink the Alabama, 1864. 



25) 4th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 6. Day's length, 14h. 24m. 



St. Silverius, Pope and Martyr, 538. 
Anthony Collins, born, 1676. 
Napoleon I, abdicated, 1815. 
Battle of Solferino, 1859. 
Nativity of St. John the Baptist. 
Battle of Bannochburn. 
Dr. Phillip Doddrige, born, 1702. 



20 


§iiii. 


4 48 


7 12 


2 55 


21 


Mon. 


4 49 


7 11 


3 25 


22 


Tues. 


4 49 


7 11 


rises. 


23 


Wed. 


4 49 


7 11 


8 28 


24 


Thurs. 


4 49 


7 10 


9 05 


25 


Frid. 


4 50 


7 11 


9 40 


26 


Sat. 


4 50 


7 10 


10 03 



26) 5th Sunday after Trinity. 



Luke 5. Day's length, 14h. 20m. 



27 


Siui. 


4 50 


7 10 


10 30 


28 


Mon. 


4 50 


7 10 


10 54 


29 


Tues. 


4 50 


7 10 


11 16 


30 


Wed. 


4 50 


7 10 


11 45 



John Murray, Publisher, died, 1843. 
Queen Victoria, crowned, 1838. 
St. Peter the Apostle, 68. 
Bishop Gavin Dunbar, died, 1547. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5640— June 11. Kosh-Codesh Tamus. 





For 


the Southern States. 




11 


7th Month. 




JULY. 


01 


Days. 


Calculated 


for 


tl\e Latitude of Southern 


States. 





MOON'S PHASES. 

New Moon 7d. 8h . Om. Morning. 

First Quarter 15d. 12k. 54m. Morning. 

New Moon 21d. 3h. 41m. Afternoon. 

Last Quarter 28d. 6h. 19m. Evening. 



DAY 

. OP 

Month &Week 


SUU 

rises, 
h. m. 


Suu 
sets. 

h. m. 


Moon 

r. & s. 

h. m. 


CHRONOLOGY 

— OF — 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 


1 

2 
3 


Thurs. 
Frid. 

Sat. 


4 51 
4 51 
4 51 


7 09 4 
7 09 
7 09 


morn. 
12 23 
12 54 


Battle of Malvern Hill, 1862. 
Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 
Quebec founded, 1608. 



4 


Sun. 


4 51 


7 09 


1 32 


5 


Mon. 


4 51 


7 09 


2 15 


6 


Tues. 


4 52 


7 08 


3 10 


7 


Wed. 


4 52 


7 08 


sets. 


8 


Thurs. 


4 52 


7 08 


8 11 


9 


Frid. 


4 53 


7 07 


8 47 


10 


Sat. 


4 53 


7 07 


9 20 



27) 6th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 5. Day's length, 14h. 18m. 

Independence of the United States, 1776. 

Queen Magdalen of Scotland, died, 1537. 

Th. More, Chancellor of Engl., beheaded, 1535 

Dr. Th. Blacklock, "the blind poet," died, 1791 

John de la Fontaine, born, 1621. 

Zachary Taylor, died, 1850. 

John Calvin, theologian, born, 1509. 

28) 7th Sunday after Trinity. Mark. 8. Day's length, 14h. 12m. 

J. Q. Adams, born, 1767. 

Robert Stevenson, Engineer, &c, died, 1850. 

Pope John, III, died, 573. 

John Hunter, eminent Surgeon, born, 1728. 

St. Swithin's Day. 

Great riot in New York city 1863. 

Dr. Isaac Watts, born, 1647. 

29) 8th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 7. Day's length, 14h. 4m. 

St. Symphorosia and her 7 sons, Martyrs, 120. 
St. Vincent de Paul, confessor, 1660. 
Confederate Congress met at Richmond, 1861. 
Battle of Bull Run, 1861. 
Urania discovered, 1824. 
First Olympiad, 776, B. C. 
Curran, born, 1750. 

30) 9th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 16. Day's length, 13h. 56m. 



11 


Sun. 


4 54 


7 06 


9 48 


12 


Mon. 


4 54 


7 06 


10 20 


13 


Tues. 


4 55 


7 05 


10 48 


14 


Wed. 


4 56 


7 04 


11 24 


15 


Thurs. 


4 56 


7 04 


morn. 


16 


Frid. 


4 57 


7 03 


12 03 


17 


Sat. 


4 57 


7 03 


12 47 



18 


Sun. 


4 58 


7 02 


1 38 


19 


Mon. 


4 58 


7 02 


2 39 


20 


Tues. 


4 59 


7 01 


3 40 


21 


Wed. 


5 00 


6 00 


rises. 


22 


Thurs. 


5 01 


6 59 


7 34 


23 


Frid. 


5 01 


6 59 


8 07 


24 


Sat. 


5 02 


6 58 


8 34 



25 


Sun. 


5 02 


6 58 


8 54 


26 


Mon. 


5 03 


6 57 


9 18 


27 


Tues. 


5 04 


6 56 


9 38 


28 


Wed. 


5 04 


6 56 


10 08 


29 


Thurs. 


5 05 


6 55 


10 40 


30 


Frid. 


5 06 


6 54 


10 18 


31 


Sat. 


5 07 


6 53 


morn. 



St. James the Great. 

Dog-days begiu. 

Atlantic Cable, laid, 1866. 

Battle before Atlanta, Ga., 1864. 

Albert I, Emperor of Germany, born. 1289. 

Westfieid explosion, N. Y. Harbor, 1871. 

St. Ignatius, Loyola, died, 1556. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts. -5640-July 9. Eosh-Codesh Ab. 17. Chason. 
18. Tishoh Beab. 24. Sabbath Nachmu. 



rimaiam 



atamm um. 



12 



Eichard Frotsceee's Almanac axd Garden Manual 



8th Mont:;. 






AUGUST. 


* 


31 


Days. 


Calcula 


ted 


for 


tl\e Latitude of Southern 


States 


• 





MOON'S PHASES. 

N 3\? Moon 5d. lOh. 27m. 

First Quarter .. 13d. 7h. 21m. 

Full Moon 20d. 12h. Om. 

Last Quarter 27d. lOh. 53m. 



Evening. 
Morning. 
Morning. 
Forenoon. 



DAT 

OF 

Month k Week 



Sun 


Sun 


| Moon 


rises. 


sets. 


r. Jfe s. 1 


h, ni. 


1 li. m. 


! h. in. 



CHRONOLOGY 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



31 10th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 19. Day's length. 13h. 46m. 



Harriet Lee. Xovelist, died. 1851. 

Mehenied All, Pasha of Egypt, died, 1849. 

Crown Point taken, 1759. 

John Banim. Irish Novelist, died. 1842. 

First Atlantic Cable landed. 1858. 

Transfiguration of our Lord. 

Leonidas. Spartan Hero, slain, 480 B. C. 



i 


§1X11. 


5 07 


6 53 


12 23 


2 


Mon, 


5 08 


6 52 


1 34 


3 


Tue-. 


5 09 


6 51 


2 ^2 


4 


Wed. 


5 10 


6 5 


3 54 


5 


Thurs. 


5 11 


6 4 


sets. 


6 


Frid. 


5 12 


6 45 


7 


7 


Sat. 


5 13 


6 47 


7 45 



32 11th Sunday after Trinity. Luke S. 



Day's length. 13h. 34m. 



Fr. Hutcheson, Moral Philos.. born, 1694, 

Isaac Walton, born, 1593. 

Battle of Weisenburg. 1870. 

Viscount Rowland Hill. born. 1772. 

Pope Gregory, IX, died. 1241. 

Earthquake in Scotland, 1816. 

G. Coleman, the elder. Dramatist, died. 1794. 



8 


§uii. 


5 13 


6 47 


- 14 


9 


Mon. 


5 14 


6 46 


8 44 


10 


Tues. 


5 15 


6 45 


9 15 


11 


Wed. 


5 16 


6 44 


10 04 


12 


Thurs. 


5 17 


6 43 


10 52 


13 


Frid. 


5 18 


6 42 


11 4 1 


14 


Sat. 


5 : 


6 41 


morn. 



33 I 12th Sunday after Trinity. 



Mark 7. Day's length, 13h. 20m 



15 


Sun. 


5 20 


6 40 


12 53 


i-;; 


Men. 


5 21 


6 39 


1 44 


17 


Tues. 


5 22 


6 : - 


2 43 


1- 


Wed. 


5 23 


6 37 


3 34 


19 


Thurs. 


5 24 


6 36 


4 24 


20 


Frid. 


5 25 


6 35 


rises, t 


21 


Sat. 


5 26 


6 34 


" 0€ 



Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 

Battle of Bennington. 1777. 

Frederick, the Great, died, 1786. 

•John, Earl Russell, born. 1792. 

Battle of Gravelotte. 1870. 

Robert Herrick, English Poet, born, 1591. 

Ladv Marv Wortlev Montague, died. 1762. 



34 : 13th Sundav after Trinirv. 



Luke 10. 



Dav's length. I3h. 6m. 



22 


Sun. 


5 27 


6 33 


7 34 


23 


Mon. 


5 28 


6 32 


7 55 


24 


Tues. 


5 29 


6 31 


8 22 


25 


Wed. 


5 30 


6 30 


B 49 


26 


i kurs. 


5 31 


_. 


9 25 


27 


Frid. 


5 32 


6 28 


19 00 


28 


Sat. 


5 33 


_: 


1( 43 



Dr. F. J. Gall, founder of Phrenology, died. 

Wallace, beheaded. 13 5. [1828. 

St. Bartholomew, Apostel. 

25th or 27th. Landing of Caesar in England, 

Sir Rob. Walpole, born. 1676. [55 B. C. 

Battle of Long Island. 1776. 

Leigh Hunt, died, 1859. 



3-3 



14th Sunday after Trinity 



Luke T 



Day's length, l2h. 52m. 



San. 5 34 _ 11 38 -John Locke. Philosopher, born. 1632. 

3" lion. 5 35 '• 6 25 morn. Union defeat at Richmond, Ey. 
31 Tues. 5 36 6 24 12 49 John Bunyan. died, 16^3. 



Jewish Festivals and F :.-:-.— 5640— Auoust 7. and 8. Rosh-Codesh Elul. 



For the Southern States. 



13 



9th Month. 



SEPTEMBER. 



30 Days. 



Calculated for tf\e Latitude of Southern States. 

MOON'S PHASES. 

New Moon ' 4d. Ilk. 31m. Forenoon. 

First Quarter lid. lh. 3m. Afternoon. 

Full Moon 18d. lOh. 7m. Forenoon. 

Last Quarter 26d. 5k. 48m. Morning. 



DAY 

OF 

Month &Week 



sun 


Sun 


Moon 


rises. 


sets. 


r. .to s. 


h. m. 


la. in. 


h. m. 



CHRONOLOGY 

—OF — 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



1 


Wed. 


5 37 


6 23 


1 53 


2 


Tkurs. 


5 38 


6 22 


3 02 


3 


Frid. 


5 39 


6 21 


4 03 


4 


Sat. 


5 40 


6 20 


sets. 



Napoleon, III, captured at Sedan, 1870. 
Great Fire in London, 1666. 
Cromwell, died, 1658. 
Pindar, Lyric Poet, 518 B. C. 



36) 15th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 16. Day's length, 12h. 36m. 



5 


SmM. 


5 42 


6 18 


6 41 


Confederates entered Maryland, 1862. 


6 


Mon. 


5 43 


6 17 


7 11 


George Alex. Stevens, Writer, died, 1784. 


7 


Tues. 


5 44 


6 16 


7 44 


Independence of Brazil, 1822. 


8 


Wed. 


5 45 


6 15 


8 20 


Nativity of tke Blessed Virgin. 


9 


Tkurs. 


5 46 


6 14 


9 06 


James, IV, of Scotland, killed, 1513. 


10 


Frid. 


5 47 


6 13 


9 55 


Mungo Park, African Traveller, born, 1771. 


11 


Sat. 


5 48 


6 12 


10 57 


James Thomson, Poet, born, 1700. 



12 


Sun. 


5 50 


6 10 


11 58 


13 


Mon. 


5 51 


6 09 


morn. 


14 


Tues. 


5 52 


6 08 


1 07 


15 


Wed. 


5 53 


6 07 


2 17 


16 


Tkurs. 


5 54 


6 06 


3 19 


17 


Frid. 


5 55 


6 05 


4 23 


18 


Sat. 


5 56 


6 04 


rises. 



37) 16th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 7. Day's length, 12h. 20m. 

St. Guy, Confessor, lltk century. 

Sir Wm. Cecil, Lord Burleigk, born, 1520. 

Uprising of the People of New Orleans against the usurping gov't. 

Capture of Harper's Ferry by S'ewall Jackson, 

Gabriel Dan'l Fabrenkeit, died, 1736. [1862. 

Battle of Antietam, 1862. 

Gilbert Biskop Burnet, His fan, born, 1643. 

38) 17th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 8. Day's length, 12h. 6m. 

First Battle of Paris, 1870. 

Alexander, tke Great, born, 356 B. C. 

St. Matkew, Apostle and Evangelist. 

Beginning of Autumn. 

Wm. Upcott, Manuscr. Collector, died, 1845. 

Pepin, King of France, 768. 

Pacific Ocean, discovered, 1513. 

39) 18th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 22. Day's length, llh. 52m. 



19 


Sun. 


5 57 


6 03 


6 19 


20 


Mon. 


5 58 


6 02 


6 43 


21 


Tues. 


5 59 


6 01 


7 09 


22 


Wed. 


6 00 


6 00 


7 42 


23 


Tkurs. 


6 01 


5 59 


8 23 


24 


Frid. 


6 02 


5 58 


9 08 


25 


Sat. 


6 03 


5 57 


10 05 



26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



Sun. 


6 04 


5 56 


11 10 


Mon. 


6 05 


5 55 


morn. 


Tues. 


6 06 


5 54 


12 18 


Wed. 


6 07 


5 53 


1 27 


Tkurs. 


6 08 


5 52 


5 37 



Saints Cvprian and Justina, Martyrs, 304. 
Strassburg fell, 1870. 
12 18 Sir Wm. Jones, Oriental Scholar, born, 1746. 
Mickaelmas Day. 
Yorktown invested, 1781. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts. -5641-September 6. and 7. Kosh-Hashonoh ; 

8. Gedaljah ; 15. Jom Kipur ; 20. and 21. Suckoth ; 26. Hosheinoh- 

raboh ; 27. Shemini Azereth ; 28. Simchas Thora. 



■ mi — i—— 



14 



Richard Feotschee's Almanac and Garden Manual 



10th Month. 



OCTOBER. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the l-atitude of Southern States. 

MOON'S PHASES. 

New Moon • 3d. llh. 22m. Evening. 

First Quarter . ; , . . 10d. 7h. 13m. Evening. 

Full Moon 17d. llh. oin. Evening. 

Last Quarter 26d. lh. 40m. Morning. 



DAY 

OF 

Month & Week 



Sun 


Sun 


Moon 


rises 


sets. 


r. & s. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 



CHROJSOLOGY 

—OF — 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



Frid. 

Sat. 



6 09 
6 10 



5 51 
5 50 



3 48 
5 02 



Fulton's first steamboat trip, 1807, 
Andre' executed as a spy, 1780. 



40) 19th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 9. Day's length, llh. 38m. 



3 


Sun. 


6 11 


5 49 


sets. 


4 


Mon. 


6 12 


5 48 


6 06 


5 


Tues. 


6 14 


5 46 


6 44 


6 


Wed. 


6 15 


5 45 


7 34 


7 


Thurs. 


6 16 


5 44 


8 28 


8 


Frid. 


6 17 


5 43 


9 22 


9 


Sat. 


6 18 


5 42 


10 15 



Black Hawk, died, 1838. 
Battle of G-ermantown, 1777. 
Horace Walpole, born, 1717. 
Jenny Lind, born, 1820. 
Margaret, Maid of Norway, died, 
Battle of Perry ville, K'y., 1862. 
Great Fire in Chicago, 1871. 



1290. 



41) 20th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 22. Day's length, llh. 22m. 

Benjamin West, Painter, born, 1738. 

America discovered, 1492. 

St. Wilfrid, Bishop of York, 709. 

Battle of Qeeenstown, 1812. 

Battle of Jena, 1806. 

Virgil, Latin Poet, born, 70 B. C. 

Marie Antoinette, beheaded, 1793. 



10 


Sun. 


6 19 


5 41 


11 03 


11 


Mon. 


6 20 


5 40 


morn. 


12 


Tues. 


6 21 


5 39 


12 17 


13 


Wed. 


6 23 


5 37 


1 28 


14 


Thurs. 


6 24 


5 36 


2 38 


15 


Frid. 


6 25 


5 35 


3 53 


16 


Sat. 


6 26 


5 34 


5 15 



42) 21st Sunday after Trinity 



John 6. 



Day's length, llh. 8m. 



17 


Sun. 


6 26 


5 34 


rises. 


18 


Mon. 


6 27 


5 33 


5 35 


19 


Tues. 


6 28 


5 32 


6 11 


20 


Wed. 


6 29 


5 31 


6 53 


21 


Thurs. 


6 30 


5 30 


7 38 


22 


Frid. 


6 32 


5 28 


8 32 


23 


Sat. 


6 33 


5 27 


9 29 



Burgoyne, surrendered, 1777. 

Last State Lottery drawn, in Engl., 1826. 

Cornwallis. surrendered, 1781. 

M. Dahl, Swed. Portrait Painter, died, 1743. 

Battle of Trafalgar, 1805. 

Charles Martel, died, 741. 

Dr. John Jortin, Critic, born, 1698. 



43) 22nd Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 18. Day's length, lOh. 52m. 

Daniel Webster, died, 1852. 

Dr. Jumes Beattie, Poet, born, 1735. 

Hogarth, died, 1765. 

Cuba discovered, 1492. 

Battle at White Plains, 1776. 

Surrender of Metz, 1870. 

Solomon's Temple dedicated, 1004 B. C. 



24 


Sun. 


6 34 


5 26 


10 14 


25 


Mon. 


6 35 


5 25 


10 57 


26 


Tues. 


6 36 


5 24 


11 37 


27 


Wed. 


6 37 


5 23 


morn. 


28 


Thurs. 


6 38 


5 22 


12 40 


29 


Frid. 


6 39 


5 21 


1 55 


30 


Sat. 


6 40 


5 20 


3 08 



44) 23rd Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 22. Day's length. lOh. 38m. 

31 Isilll.l 6 41 I 5 19 | 4 24 1 All Hallow Eve. 

Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5641— October 5. and 6. Eosh-Codesh 

Marcheshwan. 



For the Southern States. 



15 



11th Month. 



NOVEMBER. 



30 Days. 



Calculated for tl\e Latitude of Southern States. 

MOON'S PHASES. 

New Moon 2d. lOh. 33m. Forenoon. 

First Quarter 9d. 2h. 53m. Morning. 

Full Moon . .16d. 3h. 18m. Evening. 

Last Quarter 24d. 8k. 46m. Evening. 



DAY 


Sun 


Sun 


Moon i 


OF 


rises. 


sets. 


r. & s. 


Month & Week 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 



CHROXOLOGY 

— OF — 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



1 


Mon. 


6 42 


5 18 


r or 


2 


rues. 


6 43 


5 17 


sets. 


3 


Wed. 


6 44 


5 16 


5 48 


4 


Thurs. 


6 45 


5 15 


6 46 


5 


Frid. 


6 45 


5 15 


7 52 


6 


Sat. 


6 46 


5 14 


9 06 



All Saints Day. 

All Souls Day. 

Malachy, Archbishop of Armagh, 1148. 

George Peabody, died, 1869. 

The American 74 launched, 1782. 

Battle of Port Royal, 1861. 



45) 24th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 9. Day's length, lOh. 26m. 



7 


Sun. 


6 47 


5 13 


10 14 


John Kyrle, "The man of Ross," 


died, 1724. 


8 


Mon. 


6 48 


5 12 


11 13 


Cortez entered Mexico, 1519. 




9 


Tues. 


6 49 


5 11 


morn. 


Great Fire in Boston, 1872. 




10 


Wed. 


6 50 


5 10 


12 19 


Mahomet, Arabian Prophet, born 


, 570. 


11 


Thurs. 


6 51 


5 09 


1 18 


Martinmas. 




12 


Frid. 


6 52 


5 08 


2 24 


Sherman left Atlanta, 1864. 




13 


Sat. 


6 53 


5 7 


3 35 i 


French entered Vienna, 1805. 





46) 25th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 24. Day's length, 16h. 12m. 



14 


Sun. 


6 54 


5 06 


4 45 


15 


Mon. 


6 54 


5 06 


5 46 


16 


Tues. 


6 55 


5 05 


rises. 


17 


Wed. 


6 56 


5 04 


5 29 


18 


Thurs. 


6 57 


5 03 


6 14 


19 


Frid. 


6 57 


5 03 


7 06 


20 


Sat. 


6 58 


5 02 


8 15 



Sir Chas. Lyell, Geologist, born. 1797. 

John Keppler, great Astronomer, died, 1630. 

Tiberius, Roman Emperor, born, 42 B. C. 

Suez Canal opened, 1869. 

Fort Lee taken by the British, 1776. 

St. Elizabeth of Hungary, Widow, *1231. 

Thomas Chatterton, poet born, 1752. 



4*7) 26th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 25. Day's length, lOh. 2m. 



Presentation of the Blessed Virgin. 
Professor Dugald Steward, born, 1753. 
Th. Henderson, Prof, of Astron. , died, 1844. 
Battle of Lookout Mountain, 1863. 
Evacuation of New York, 1783. 
John Elwes, noted miser, died, 1789. 
Steam Printing, 1814. 



21 


Sun. 


6 59 


5 01 


9 26 


22 


Mon. 


6 59 


5 01 


10 31 


23 


Tues. 


7 00 


5 00 


11 39 


24 


Wed. 


7 01 


4 59 


morn. 


25 


Thurs. 


7 01 


4 59 


12 43 


26 


Frid. 


7 02 


4 58 


1 54 


27 


Sat. 


7 02 


4 58 


3 01 



48) 1st Sunday in Advent. 



Matth. 21. 



Day's length, 9h. 54m. 



28 
29 
30 



Sun. 

Mon. 

Tues. 



7 03 
7 03 
7 04 



4 57 
4 57 
4 56 



4 10 

5 15 

6 04 



"Washington Irving, died, 1859. 

Sir Phillip Sidney, Poet, born, 1554. 

U. S. took possession of Louisiana, 1803. . 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5641— November 4. Rosh-Codesh Kislev ; 

28. Chanukah. 



16 



Richard Frotcher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



12th Month. 



DECEMBER. 



31 Bays. 



Calculated for the Latitude of Southex:r\ States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

New Moon Id. 

First Quarter 8d. 

Full Moon 16d. 

Last Quarter . . / 24d. 

New Moon 31d. 



9h. 35m. Evening. 

In. 17m. Afternoon. 

lOh. 15m. Forenoon, 

lb. 35m. Afternoon. 

7b. 35m. Morning. 



DAY 

OF 

Month & Week 



Sun 


Sun 


Moon 


rises 


sets. 


r. & s. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 



CHROJVOLOGY 

— OF — 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



1 


Wed. 


7 05 


4 55 


sets. 


2 


Tburs. 


7 06 


4 54 


5 26 


3 


Frid. 


7 06 


4 54 


6 36 


4 


Sat, 


7 07 


4 53 


7 44 



Princess A. Comnena, Historian, born, 10S3. 
Hernan Cortes, died, 1547. 
Robert Bloomfield, Poet, born, 1776. 
Pope Jobn, XXII, died, 1334. 



49) 2d Sunday in Advent. 



Luke 21. 



Day's length, 9h. 46 m 



5 


Sun. 


7 07 


4 53 


8 56 


6 


Mon. 


7 07 


4 53 


10 4 


7 


Tues. 


7 08 


4 52 


11 16 


8 


Wed. 


7 08 


4 52 


morn. 


9 


Tburs. 


7 08 


4 52 


12 10 


10 


Frid. 


7 09 


4 51 


1 10 


11 


Sat. 


7 09 


4 51 


2 16 



Cariyle, born, 1795. 

St. Nicholas, Arcbbisbop, of Myra, 342. 

Cicero, Roman Orator, assassinated, 43 B. C. 

Immaculate Conception of tbe Blessed Virgin. 

Milton, born, 1608. 

Louis Napoleon, elected President, 1848. 

Louis, Prince of Conde, died, 1686. 



50) 3d Sunday in Advent, 



Matth. 11. 



Day's length, 9h. 42ro 



12 


Sun. 


7 9 


4 51 


3 18 


13 


Mon. 


7 9 


4 51 


4 19 


14 


Tues. 


7 10 


4 50 


5 22 


15 


Wed. 


7 10 


4 50 


6 25 


16 


Tburs. 


7 10 


4 50 


rises. 


17 


Frid. 


7 10 


4 50 


5 47 


18 


Sat. , 


7 11 


4 49 


6 48 



St. Columba, Abbot in Ireland, 584. 

Battle of Fredericksburg, 1862. 

Wasbington, died, 1799. 

David Don, Botanist, died, 1841. 

Great Fire in New York, 1835. 

Lrdw. Beetboven, emin. Compos., born. 1770. 

St. Winebald, Abbot and Confessor, 760. 



51) 4th Sunday in Advent. 



John 1. 



Day's length, 9h. 38m. 



19 


Sum. 


7 11 


4 49 


7 50 


20 


Mon. 


7 11 


4 49 


8 56 


21 


Tues. 


7 12 


4 48 


9 59 


22 


Wed. 


7 11 


4 49 


10 58 


23 


Tburs. 


7 11 


4 49 


11 59 


24 


Frid. 


7 11 


4 49 


morn. 


25 


Sat. 


7 10 


4 50 


12 42 



Capt. W. Ed. Parry, Arct. Nav., born, 1790, 

Secession ordinance passed in S. Carolina, '60. 

St. Thomas, Apostle. 

Emp. Vetellius, bebeaded at Rome, 69 A. D. 

Newton, born, 1642. 

Treaty of Gbent, 1814. 

Nativity of our Lord. . Christmas Day. 



52) Sunday after Christmas. 



Luke 1. Day's length, 9h. 40m. 



26 


Sun. 


7 10 


4 50 


1 52 


27 


Mon. 


7 10 


4 50 


2 57 


28 


Tues. 


7 10 


4 50 


4 4 | 


29 


Wed. 


7 9 


4 51 


5 10 


30* 


Tburs. 


7 9 


4 51 


' 6 12 ; 


31 


Frid. 


7 9 


4 51 


sets. 



Battle of Trenton, 1776. 

St. John, Apostle and Evangelist. 

Macauiey, died, 1859. 

Union repulse at Vicksbnrg, Miss., 1862. 

Titus. Roman Emperor, born, 41, A. D. 

Battle of Murfreesboro, 1862. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.-5641-December 3. Rosh-Choclesh Thebeath. 



For the Southern States. 17 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN. 



The size depends upon the purposes for which it is intended ; whether 
the family is large or small, and the time which can be devoted to its 
cultivation. The most suitable soil for a garden is a light loam. When 
the soil is too heavy, it ought to be made light by applying stable man- 
ure, and working up the ground thoroughly. Trenching as done in 
Europe, or North, is not advisable, at least not where there is any coco, 
as by trenching the roots of this pest will get so deeply incorporated 
with the soil that it will be very hard afterwards to get rid of it. Ex- 
posure towards the east is desirable. If there are one or more large 
trees in the garden, or on the immediate outside, their shade can be 
used in which to sow Celery, Cabbage and other seeds during the hot 
summer months, which will be an advantage. The seed beds for this 
purpose should be so arranged, as to receive only the morning or 
evening sun. It is of the greatest importance that the ground should 
be well drained, otherwise it will be impossible to raise good vegetables. 
The most reliable manure for general purposes is well decomposed 
stable or barnyard manure. Manure from cows will suit best for light 
sandy soil, horse manure for heavy stiff clay lands. For special pur- 
poses, Peruvian Guano, Blood Fertilizer, Eaw Bone, Cotton seed meal 
and other commercial manures may be employed with advantage. 
Where the land is very sandy, cotton seed meal has the most lasting 
effect. For quick growing crops such as Melons, Cucumbers, etc., the 
Blood Fertilizer and Guano applied in the hills is very good. Soap 
suds are good for Celery ; it is astonishing to perceive the difference in 
the size of those stalks which are watered every few days with the suds 
and others on the same ground, which are not. Wood ashes are best for 
Peas, either used as a top dressing, when the peas just come out of the 
ground, or else sprinkled in the rows when planted. The New Orleans 
market gardeners raise as fine vegetables as can be produced any- 
where, in fact some varieties can not be excelled, and very few gardeners 
use anything but stable manure. 

Rotation of crops is another important item. Beets, Carrots and 
other roots should not be grown in succession on the same ground, but 
should be changed to those which grow above ground, such as Lettuce, 
Beans, Peas, etc. Good seed, good ground and good cultivation are 
essential in order to raise good vegetables. When plants are up, the 
ground should be stirred frequently ; weeds ought not to be suffered 
to go into seed, but should be destroyed as soon as they appear. Hoe- 
ing and working the young crops during dry weather is very beneficial, 
because the weeds are then easily killed, and hoeing the ground will 
make it retain moisture better than if it were left alone. 



18 



ElCHAED FSOTSCHES'S AlXIANAC AXT> GrARDEN MaSUAX 




THE HOT BED. 



Owing to the open Winters in the South, hot beds are not so much 
used as in the Xorth. except to raise such tender plants, as Eggplants. 
Tomatoes and Peppers. There is little forcing of vegetables done here, 
except as regards Cucumbers and Lettuce : and if we do not have any 
hard frosts the latter does better in the open ground than under glass. 
T a make a hot bed is a very simple thing, anyone who has the use of 
:: _s can make the wooden frame, the sashes may be obtained at any 
sash factory. I consider a wooden frame from five to six feet wide, and 
ten feet six inches long, a very good size, it should be at least six inches 
higher at the back than in the front, and covered by three sashes 3$x5 
feet. The manure ought not to be over one month old. should be 
thrown together in a heap, and when commencing to heat, be 
worked over with a fork, and all the long and short manure evenly 
mixed. In this State the ground is generally low, and to retain the 
heat of the manure for a longer time, it is best to put the manure on top 
of the ground. That is. make a bank two feet longer and two wider 
than the frame ; keep the edges straight and the corners firm when 
thrown up about eighteen inches, trample the manure down to six or 
eight inches, then put on another layer of eighteen inches and trample 
down again : place thereon the frame and sash and fill in six inche- : 
good earth. After about five days stir the ground to kill any weeds 
which may have come up, then sow the seeds. In lower Louisiana the 
ground is too wet to dig out eighteen inches deep and then throw in the 
manure and trample down as recommended in the North. A few hard 
rains, such as we frequently have in winter, and the manure would 
become s : s :aked beneath the ground, that the heat would be gone. 
Another advantage when the frame is put above the ground is. that it 
will go down with the manure gradually, and there remains always the 
same space between the glass and the ground. If the ground is dug out 
and the manure put into the frame, the ground will sink down so low 
after a short time, that the sun will have little effect upon it. and plants 
will become spindly. 



For the Southern States. 



19 



SOWING SEEDS. 



Some seeds are sown at once, where they are to remain and mature. 
Others are sown in seed beds and, transplanted afterwards. Seeds 
should be covered according to their size, a covering of earth twice the 
size of the seed is about the maximum. Some seeds, such as Beans, Corn 
and Peas, can be covered from one to two inches, and they will come 
up well. Here is a difference again. "Wrinkled Peas and Sugar Corn have 
to be covered lighter and more carefully than MarrowfatPeas or the com- 
mon varieties of Corn. It depends upon the nature of the soil, season of 
the year, etc. For instance, in heavy wet soil seeds have to be covered 
lighter than in sandy light ground. Seeds which are sown during sum- 
mer in the open ground, such as Beets and Carrots, should be soaked 
over night in water and rolled in ashes or plaster before sowing ; they 
will come up quicker. When they are sown in a seed bed, the ground 
should be light enough not to bake after a rain. Some varieties of 
seeds require shade when sown during the Summer, such as Cauliflower, 
Celery and Lettuce. Care should be taken to have the shade at least 
three feet from the ground, and shade only after the sun has been on 
the bed for two or three hours, and remove again early in the afternoon, 
so the plants may become sturdy ; if too much shaded they will be 
drawn up, long legged and not fit to be set out in the open ground. 
The most successful cabbage planters in this neighborhood sow their 
seed in the open ground, toward the end of July and during August, 
and give them no shade, but water, and keep the ground moist from the 
day of sowing till the plants are transplanted. Seed should be sown 
thinly in the seed bed ; if plants come up too thickly they are apt to 
damp off. 

Lettuce seed should be sprouted during the hot months, before 
sowing, according to directions given for June. 

To sow Turnips on a large scale during late summer and early fall 
months, the ground should be prepared in advance, and the seed sown 
just before or during a rain. Small pieces of ground, of course, can be 
sown at any time and watered afterwards. For covering all kinds of 
seeds a fork is preferable to a rake ; with either implement care must be 
taken not to cover the seeds too deep. Beans, Peas and Corn are 
covered with the hoe. Some fine seeds, such as Thyme or Tobacco, 
are covered enough when pressed with the back of the spade to 
the ground. The seedsman is often blamed for selling seeds, which 
have not come up, when the same are perfectly good, but perhaps 
through ignorance, the party, by whom they were sown, placed them 
too deep, or too shallow in the ground ; or the ground may have been 
just moist enough to swell the seeds, and they failed to come up. At 
other times washing rains after sowing beat the ground and form a 
crust that the seeds are not able to penetrate ; or if there is too much 
fresh manure in the ground, it will burn the seed, and destroy its vitality. 

Where seeds, such as Beans, Cucumbers, Melons and Squash, are 
planted before it is warm enough, they are very apt to rot if it rains. 



20 



Richard Feotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



The following Tables will be found useful to the 
Gardener, Farmer & Amateur, 



AVERAGE QUANTITY OF SEED SOWN TO AN ACRE. 



In Distils. 

Dwarf Beans 1 Bushel. 

Early Peas 2 

Marrowfat Peas li " 

Beets 4 lbs. 

Carrots 2 

Onions 6 " 

Potatoes, (cut tubers) 10 Bushels 

Parsnips 4 lbs. 

Radish 5 

RutaBaga 1| to 2 



Spinach 10 to 12 

Salsify 6 to 8 

Turnip 1 to 1 

In Hills. 

Pole Beans 10 to 12 

Corn 8 to 10 

Cucumbers 2 

Musk Melon 2 

Water " 4 

Pumpkin. . 5 to 6 

Squash 4 



lbs. 



qts. 
qts. 
lbs. 

a 
a 
a 
a 



QUANTITY OF SEED REQUIRED FOR A GIVEN LENGTH 

OF DRILL. 



Asparagus . .1 oz. to 60 feet of drill 



Beet 


.1 " 


50 


Beans, dwarf 1 qt. 


100 


Carrot 


.1 oz. 


100 


Endive 


. 1 " 


100 


Okra 


..1 " 


40 


Onion 


.1 " 


100 


Onion Sets . 


.1 qt. 


20 



Parsley . . 1 oz. to 125 feet of drill. 



Parsnips. 1 " 


150 


Peas 1 qt. 


100 


Radish. ..1 oz. 


75 


Salsify... 1 " 


70 


Spinach.. 1 " 


75 


Turnip. . .1 " 


150 



QUANTITY OF SEED REQUIRED FOR A GIVEN NUMBER 

OF HILLS. 



Pole Beans 1 qt. to 150 hills. 

Corn 1 " 200 " 

Cucumber 1 oz. 100 " 

Water Melon.. .1 " 40 " 



Musk Melon 1 oz. to 75— 100 hills. 
Pumpkins ... 1 " 50—80 " 
Squash 1 " 60— 80 " 



Table showing the amount of seed necessary for an acre, and the 

number of pounds in a bushel. 



Red Clover 

White Dutch Clover. .60 
Lucerne or Alfalfa 

Clover 60 

Alsike Clover 60 



No. of ft No of ft 
to bush, to acre. 
...60 



6 to 10 

5 to 8 

6 to 8 
4 to 6 

Hungarian Grass 48 20 to 30 



No. of ft No. of ft 
to bush, to acre. 

Millet 50 15 to 30 

Red Top Grass 14 7 to 14 

Orchard Grass 14 14 to 20 

Kentucky Blue Grass . 14 14 to 28 
Buckwheat 52 25 to 52 



For the Southern States. 



21 



Descriptive Catalogue of Vegetable Seeds. 

ARTICHOKE. 

Artichaut, (Fr.) Artischoke, (Ger.) Alcachofa, (Sp.) 




green globe artichoke. 

Large Globe. This is a very popular vegetable in the South and 
much esteemed by the native as well as the foreign population from 
the south of Europe. It is extensively cultivated for the New Orleans 
market. It is best propagated from suckers which come up around the 
large plants ; take them off during the fall and early winter months ; 
plant them four feet apart each way. Every fall the ground should be 
manured and spaded or plowed between them. If planted by seed, sow 
them in drills during winter or early spring, three fnches apart and one 
foot from row to row ; cover with about one half inch of earth ; the 
following fall the plants can be transplanted and cultivated as recom- 
mended above. 

ASPARAGUS. 

Asperge, (Fr.) Spargel, (Ger.) Esparagos, (Sp.) 

Purple Top. The Asparagus is not extensively cultivated in the 
South, not that it is not liked well enough, but from the fact that it 
does not succeed as well as in more Northern latitudes. It seems that 
it is short lived ; the roots giving out soon, or throwing up very small 
shoots. 

The ground should be well manured and prepared before either 
the roots or seeds are planted. For this climate the sowing of seed is 
preferable. Roots are generally imported from the North, and I have 



22 Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



found that the roots raised here, one year old, are as strong as those 
received from the North three years old. Plant the seed in early spring. 
Soak over night in water, plant in rows or rather hills one foot apart 
and two feet between ; put from four to five seeds in each hill, when 
well up thin out to two plants. The following winter when the stalks 
are cut off, cover with a heavy coat of well rotted manure, and a sprink- 
ling of salt; fish-brine will an swat tho oo™~ — - , S p r jng 

s. The 
old not 
:en not 
ve had 
shoots, 



1 



ruary, 
.e and 
much, 
igain ; 
rer the 



Lima Beans should not be planted before the ground has become 
warm in spring. Strong poles ought to be set in the ground from 
four to six feet apart and the ground drawn around them, before the 
seed is planted. It is always best to plant after a rain and with the eye 
of the bean down. The other varieties can be planted flat, and not 
more than three to four feet apart, and hilled after they are up. Do 
not cover the seeds more than two inches; one inch is enough for the 
Southern Prolific. 

BBANS.-(Dwarf, Snap or Bush.) 

Haricots, (Fr.) Bohne, (Ger.) Frijolenano, (Sp.) 



Extra Early Six Weeks or New- 

ington Wonder. 
Early Valentine Bed Speckled. 
Early Mohawk Six Weeks. 
Early Yellow Six Weeks. 



German Dwarf Wax. 
White Kidney. 
Bed Speckled French. 
Early China Bed Eye. 
Bed Kidney. 



Extra Early Six Weeks or Newington Wonder is very 
early, bat the pods are small and round. Good for family use. 

Early Valentine, one of the best varieties, pods round, tender 
and quite productive ; not much planted for the market. 

Early Mohawk. Six Weeks. This is a long podded variety 
and considered very hardy, it is used to a large extent for the market, 
for the first planting ; very productive. 



For the Southern States. 23 



Early Yellow Six Weeks. This is the most popular sort 
among market-gardeners, pods flat and long. A very good bearer. 

German Dwarf 'Wax. A new variety which is unsurpassed as 
a snap bean. Pods are of a wax color and have no strings. Quite produc- 
tive. Has come into general cultivation, cannot be too highly recom- 
mended. 

White Kidney. A good strong growing variety, not much planted. 

Red Speckled French, is another strong growing variety plan- 
ted a good deal for the New Orleans market, as a second crop being 
about ten days later than the Mohawk and Yellow Six Weeks. It is 
hardy and productive. 

Early China Red Eye, early and of good quality, but not very 
popular. 

Red Kidney. This variety is largely planted for the New Orleans 
market. It is a coarse growing variety, and much used for shelling 
when the pods turn yellow, so that the beans are well developed, but 
soft yet. 

BEANS.- Pole or Running. 

Haricots a Eames, (Er.) Stangen Bohnen, (G-er.) Frijol Vastago, (Sp.) 



Large Lima. 
Carolina or Sewee. 
Horticultural or Wren's Egg. 



Dutch Case Knife. 
German Wax or Butter. 
Southern Prolific 



Earge Eima. A well known and excellent variety, it is the best 
shell bean known. Should have rich ground, and plenty room to grow. 

Carolina or Sewee. A variety similar to the Lima, the only 
difference is, the seeds and pods are smaller. It is generally cultivated 
being more productive than the Large Lima. 

Horticultural or Wren's Egg, does not grow very strong, 
bears well, pods about six inches long which are roundish and very 
tender. 

Dutch Case Knife, a very good, pole bean; it is early; pods 
broad and long, somewhat turned towards the end. 

derma 11 Wax. This is a fine variety, and has the same good 
qualities as the German Dwarf Wax. Pods have a waxy appearance ; 
very succulent and tender. 

Southern Proline. No variety will continue longer in bearing 
than this. It stands the heat of the summer better than any other, and 
is planted to succeed the other kinds. It is a very strong grower, pods 
about seven inches long, flat ; seeds dark yellow or rather light brown. 
It is the standard variety for the New Orleans market for late spring 
and summer. 

ENGLISH BEANS. 

Feve de Marais, (Fr.) Puff Bohne, (Ger.) Haba Comun, (Sp.) 

Broad Windsor. Not so much cultivated here as in some parts 
of Europe. It is much liked by the people of the Southern part of 
Europe. Ought to be planted during November ; as if planted in the 
spring they will not produce much. 



24 



Eichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



BEETS. 

Betrave, (Fr.) Eunkelruebe, (Ger.) Eemolacha, (Sp.) 



Extra Early or Bassano. 
Simon's Early Eed Turnip. 
Early Blood Turnip. 
Long Blood. 
Half Long Blood. 



Egyptian Eed Turnip. 
Long Eed Mangel Wurtzel. 
White French Sugar. 
Silver or Swiss Chard. 



Culture. 

The ground for beets should be rich and well spaded or plowed. 
Sow in drills twelve to eighteen inches apart, cover the seed about one 
inch deep. Thin them out when about a month old to four to six inches 
apart. In this latitude beets are sown from January till the end of 
April, and from the middle of July till the middle of November ; in fact, 
some market gardeners sow some every month in the year. In the 
summer and fall it is well to soak the seeds over night, and roll in plaster 
before sowing. 

Extra Early or Bassano, is the earliest variety, but not popular 
on account of its color, which is almost white when boiled. Ear- 
liness is not of so much value here, where there are beets sown and 
brought to the market the whole year round. In the North it is 
different, where the first crop of beets in the market in spring will 
bring a better price than the varieties which mature later. 





Simon's Early Eed Turnip Beet. 
Simon's Early Red Turnip. 



Early Blood Turnip Beet. 
This is earlier than the Blood 
Turnip, smooth skin and of light red color, planted a good deal by the 
market gardeners about New Orleans. 

Early Blood Turnip. The most popular variety for market 
purposes as well as family use. It is of a dark red color, and very tender. 

Long: Blood, is not quite so tender as the foregoing variety; it is 
not planted at all for the market, and very little for family use. In the 
North it is chiefly planted for winter use ; here we have Turnip Beets 
the whole winter from the garden, therefore it has not the same value. 

Half Long Blood. A very dark red variety of a half long shape ; 
a good variety, but not much esteemed. 



r 



For the Southern States. 



25 










Egyptian Bed Turnip Beet. White French Sugar Beet. 

Egyptian Red Turnip. This is a new variety sent out by 
Benary some years ago. It is very early, tender, deep red and of Turnip 
shape. Leaves of this variety are smaller than on others. The seeds 
are also much smaller. I recommend it and consider it an acquisition. 

Long Red Mangel Wurtzel. 
This is raised for stock ; it grows to a 
large size. Heie in the South where 
stock is not stabled during the winter, 
the raising of root crops is much neglect- 
ed ; being very profitable for their food 
it ought to be more cultivated. 

White French Sugar, is used the 
same as the foregoing; not much 
planted. 

Silver Beet or Swiss Chard; Silver Beet or Swiss Chard. 

This variety is cultivated for its large succulent leaves, which are 
used for the same purposes as Spinach. It is very popular in the New 
Orleans Market. 

BORECOLE OR CURLED KALE. 

Chou-vert, (Fr.) Gruener Kohl, (Ger.) Breton, (Sp.) 

Dwarf German Greens. 

A vegetable highly esteemed in northern part of Europe, but very 

little cultivated in this country. It requires frost to make it good. 

Treated the same as Cabbage. 




26 



Bichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



BROCCOLI. 

Chou Brocoli, (Ft.) Brocoli Spargel-Kohl, (Ger.) Broculi, (Sp.) 

Purple Cape. 

Kesembles the Cauliflower, but not forming such compact heads, 
and not quite so white, being of a greenish cast. We raise such fine 
Cauliflower here, that very little Broccoli is raised. 

The Purple Cape is the most desirable variety; cultivated the same 
as Half Early Cauliflower ; further North than New Orleans, where 
Cauliflower does not succeed, the Broccoli may be substituted, being 
more hardy. 

BRUSSELS SPROUTS. 

Chou de Bruxelles, (Fr.) Bosen or Sprossen Kohl, (Ger.) 

Breton de Bruselas, (Sp.) 







Brussels Sprouts. 
A vegetable cultivated the same as the cabbage, but very little known 
here. The small heads which appear along the upper part of the stalk 
between the leaves, make a fine dish when well prepared. 

CABBAGE. 

Chou Pomme, (Fr.) Kopfkohl, (Ger.) Bepollo, (Sp.) 



Early York. 
Early Large Yore. 
Early Sugar Loaf. 
Early Large Oxheart. 
Early Winningstadt. 
Jersey Wakefield. 
Early Flat Dutch. 
Large Flat Brunswick. 



Fotler's Improved Brunswick. 
Large Late Drumhead. 
Superior Flat Dutch. 
Bed Dutch (for Pickling). 
Green Globe Savoy. 
Early Dwarf Savoy. 
Drumhead Savoy. 
St. Denis or Chou Bonneuil. 



< 



Culture, 

Cabbage requires a strong good soil, and should be heavily manured. 
To raise large Cabbage without good soil, and without working the 
plants well, is an impossibility. Cabbage is sown here almost in every 
month of the year, but the seed for a main crop should be sown from 
July to September ; some sow earlier, but July is time enough. For a 



For the Southern States. 



27 



succession, seed can be sown till November. Early varieties are sown 

during winter and early spring. Cabbage is a very important crop and 

one of the best paying for the market-gardener. It requires more 

work and attention than most people are willing to give, to raise cabbage 

plants during the months of July and August. I have found, by careful 

observation, that plants raised in August are the surest to head here. 

The most successful gardeners in raising cabbage plants, sow the seeds 

thinly in seed-beds, and water several times during the day ; in fact 

the seed-bed never is allowed to get dry from the sowing of the seed 

till large enough to transplant. There is no danger in doing this of 

scalding the plants as many would suppose, but just the reverse, the 

plants thrive well, and so treated will be less liable to be attacked by 

the cabbage-fly, as they are too often disturbed during the day. 

Early York. This is an early variety, but very little grown here, 

except for family use. As we have cabbage heading up almost the whole 

year, it has not the same value as in Northern climates, where the first 

cabbage in spring bring6 a good price. 

Large York. About two to three weeks later than the above, 
forming hard heads, not grown for the market. Recommended for 
family use. 

Early Sugar Loaf. Another pointed variety with spoon shaped 
leaves, sown in early spring for an early summer Cabbage. 

Early E&rge Oxheart. An excellent variety, which is later 
than the Large York, and well adapted for sowing in fall or early spring. 

Early Winningstadt. This is a very fine solid heading variety, 
pointed and of good size, of the same season as the Oxheart ; it is very 
good for family use. It does not suit the market, as no pointed cabbage 
can be sold to any advantage in the New Orleans market. 





Early York Cabbage. 



Large York Cabbage. 





Early Large Oxheart. 



Early Winningstadt. 



28 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 





**■-« :i «u vSS-tvaV * 



: 52?* "S^" 



Earlv Flat Dutch. 



Large Flat Brunswick. 




Superior Large Late Flat Dutch. 




Green Globe Savoy. 




Earlv Dwarf Savoy. 




Drumhead Savoy. 



St. Denis or Chou Bonneuil. 



Foe the Southern States. 29 



Jersey Wakefield, very popular in the North, but little planted 
here ; it is of medium size and heads up well. 

Early F8at Dutch, an intermediate variety between the early 
pointed and late varieties ; it is not, on average, as heavy as the Oxheart 
or Winningstadt, but if raised for the market more salable oh account 
of being flat. 

Large Flat Brunswick:. This is a late German variety, intro- 
duced by me about thirteen years ago. It is an excellentvariety and when 
well headed up, the shape of it is a true type of a Premium Flat Dutch 
Cabbage. It requires very rich ground, and should be sown early, 
as it is a little more susceptible of frost than the Superior Flat Dutch. 
It is well adapted for shipping, being very hard and does not wilt so 
quick as others. At Frenier, along the Jackson Eail Koad, this is the 
kind principally planted, and is preferred over all other varieties. The 
people living there plant nothing else except cabbage for the New 
Orleans market, and have tried nearly all highly recommended varie- 
ties, and this is their choice. 

Fotler's Improved Brunswick. This is similar to the Large 
Flat Brunswick, but somewhat later, and not so regular in shape. The 
seed of this kind being raised North, renders the plants harder than 
the German Brunswick. 

Large L,ate Drumhead. Fine large variety, should be sown 
early in fall for winter, or during December and January for late spring 
use ; it will stand more cold weather than the foregoing variety. 

Superior Flat Dutch. This is the most popular variety for 
winter cabbage, and cultivated by almost every gardener who plants for 
the New Orleans market. My stock is of superior quality and I venture 
to say, that seventy-five per cent, of all cabbage sold in the New Orleans 
market are of seeds which have been obtained from my store. During 
winter and spring specimens, which are brought as samples to my 
establishment, weighing from fifteen to twenty-five pounds, can be 
frequently seen. In regard to the time of planting see remarks under 
the head of Cabbage in the directions for planting for July. 

Red Dutch. Mostly used for pickling or salads. Very little 
cultivated. 

Green Globe Savoy. Medium sized heads, not very hard, but 
all the leaves can be used. This and the following varieties are of fine 
flavor, and preferred by many over the other varieties. 

Early Dwarf Savoy. Heads rather small, but solid, leaves 
very curled and succulent, of a dai*k green color. Very fine for family 
garden. 

Drumhead Savoy. Leaves are wrinkled, but not quite so much 
as the two foregoing kinds. It grows to a good size with large roundish 
heads. 

St. Denis or Choi! Bonneuil. This is a very popular French 
variety for the market as well as family garden. It grows to a large 
size, but requires a good season, and good ground to make it head well. 
It should be sown during August and September for winter use, and in 
December and January for late spring use. Some market gardeners 
plant this variety in preference to any other, and some of the finest 
heads of cabbage offered in this market are of this variety. 



30 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



CAULIFLOWER. 

Choufleur, (Fr.) Blumenkohl, (Ger.) Coliflor, (Sp.) 



Le Normands (short stemmed.) 
Early Italian Giant. 
Late Italian Giant. 



Extra Early Paris. 
Hale Early Paris. 
Large Asiatic. 
Early Erfurt. 

This is one of the finest vegetables grown, and succeeds well in the 
neighborhood of New Orleans. Large quantities are raised on the sea 
coast in the neighborhood of Barataria Bay. The two Italian varieties 
are of excellent quality, growing to a large size and are considered 
hardier than the German and French varieties. I have had specimens 
brought to the store, raised from seed obtained from me, weighing six- 
teen pounds. The ground for planting Cauliflowers should be very 
rich. They thrive best in rich sandy soil, and require plenty of moist- 
ure during the formation of the head. The Italian varieties should be 
sown from April till July ; the latter month and June is the best time 
to sow the early Giant. During August, September and October the 
Le Normands, Half Early Paris, Asiatic and Erfurt can be sown. The 
Half Early Paris is very popular, but the other varieties are just as 
good, and the Asiatic is a little hardier than the rest. For Spring crop 
the Italian kinds do not answer, but the early French and German 
varieties can be sown at the end of December and during January in a 
bed protected from frost, and may be transplanted during February 
and as late as March, into the open ground ; if we have a favorable 
season and not too dry, they will be very fine, but if the heat sets in 
soon, the flowers will not obtain the same size as those obtained from 
seeds sown in fall, and which head during December and January. 

Extra Early Paris, the earliest variety, heads small, very tender. 

Half Early Paris. The most popular in the New Orleans mar- 
ket. Heads of good size, white and compact. 




Large Asiatic Cauliflower. 



and 



Large Asiatic is similar to the above, but grows stronger, 
is hardier. Quite a favorite variety with those who know it. 

Early Erfurt. This variety is of a more dwarfish growth than 
the two former. Heads white and of good size. Heads with certainty. 



For the Southern States. 



31 




Le Normands short stemmed Cauliflower 

L.e Normands, is a French variety and largely cultivated here. 
It stands more dry weather than the other varieties, and has large and 
pure white heads. Not so popular as the Half Early Paris in this 
market, but there is no good reason why it should not be, as it is an 
excellent variety in every respect. 




Early Italian Giant Cauliflower. 

Early Italian Giant* Very large fine sort, not quite so late as 
the Late Italian, and almost as large. The heads are quite large, white 
and compact, and of delicious flavor. Eecommend it to all who have 
not tried it. When sown at the proper season it will head with certainty, 
and will not fail to give satisfaction. 



32 



Richard Feotschee's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Late Italian Giant. This is the largest of all the Cauliflowers ; 
it is grown to a considerable extent in the neighborhood of New Orleans. 
It is very large and compact, should not be sown later than June, as it 
takes from seven to nine months before it heads. 

CARROT. 

Caeotte, (Fr.) Moehee oe Gelbe Buebe, (Ger.) Zanahoeia, (Sp.) 



Eaely Scarlet Hoen. 
Half Long Scaelet Feench. 



Impeoved Long Orange. 
Long Red, without coee. 



Requires a sandy loam, well manured, and deeply spaded up. 
Should be sown in drills ten to twelve inches apart, so the plants can 
be worked after they are up. Gardeners here generally sow them 
broadcast, and often the roots are small from being crowded too much 
together. 




Early Scarlet Horn Carrot. 



Half Long Luc Carrot. Half Long French 

Scarlet Carrot. 

Early Scarlet Horn, A short stump-rooted variety, of medium 
size, very early and of fine flavor. Not cultivated for the market. 

Half Long French Scarlet. This is the most popular variety 
and extensively grown for the market, as well as for family use. It is 
a little later than the Early Horn, but much larger, bright scarlet in 
color and of fine flavor. 

Half Long: Luc. This is a new variety from France. It is as 
early as any previously mentioned, but stump-rooted and larger. 
It is very smooth and of a fine color. 

Improved Long Orange. This is an old variety, roots long 
and of a deep orange color. It is not much cultivated in this section 
and the flavor is not so fine as that of the two proceeding kinds. Valuable 
for field culture. 



Foe the Southern States. 



33 




JLong: Red without core. A new variety 
from France, which is of cylindrical 
shape, very smooth, bright scarlet color 
and of fine flavor, has no heart or core. 
It is not quite so early as the Half Long, 
but more productive. Consider it a first- 
class variety for the table, and one that 
will come into general cultivation when 
better known. 

CELERY. 
Celeri, (Fr.) Sellerie, (Ger.) Apio, (Sp.) 

Large White Solid. 

Incomparable Dwarf White. 

Sandringham's Dwarf White. 

turniprooted. 

Dwarf Large Eibbed. (New.) 

Cutting. 
Sow in May and June for early trans- 
planting, and in August and September 
for a later crop. Sow thinly and shade 



Carrot, Long Ked, without core, 
during the hot months. Trans- 
plant when the plants are six 
inches high, into trenches 
about four inches deep, nine 
wide and two and a half feet 
apart, made very rich by dig- 
ging in rotten manure. Plants 
should be from six to eight 
inches apart. When planted 
out during the hot months,the 
trenches require to be shaded, 
which is generally done by 
spreading cotton cloth over 
them ; lantanias will answer 
the same purpose. Celery re- 
quires plenty of moisture, and 
watering with soap-suds, or 
liquid manure will benefit the 
plants a great deal. When tall 
enough it should be earthed 
up to blanch to make it fit for 
the table. 

Large White Solid, is 
the variety mostly grown; it 
is white, solid and crisp. 

Incomparable Dwarf 
Wliite, or Boston Mar- 
ket, is short but earlier than 




Large White Solid Celery. 



34 



Richard Frotschee's Almanac axd Garden Manual 



the foregoing. It blanches very readily, sown by the market gardeners 
for late use, as it does not shoot into seed so quickly as the tall kinds. 
Saiidringlmm Dwarf White. This is a new variety of excel- 




Celeriac, or Turniprooted Celery. 




Dwarf Large Pdbbed (new. 



lent quality, somewhat taller 
than the Incomparable Dwarf. 
It has become very popular with 
the market-gardeners. 

Celeriac, or TtirMiprooted 

Celery, is very popular in some 
parts of Europe, but hardly cul- 
tivated here. It should be sown 
in the fall of the year, and trans- 
planted six inches apart, in rows 
one foot apart. When the roots 
have obtained a good size, they 
are boiled, scraped off, sliced and 
dressed with vinegar, etc., as a 
salad. 

Dwarf JLarge Ribbed. This 
kind has been brought here dur- 
ing the past year from France. It 
is short, but very thick-ribbed, 
solid and of fine flavor. 

Celery for Soup. This is 
sown in the spring of the year 
broad-cast, to be used for season- 
ing the same as Parsley. 



For the Southern States. 



35 



CHERVIL. 

Cerfeuil, (Fr.) Kerbelkraut, (Ger.) 
An aromatic plant used a good deal for seasoning, especially in 
oyster soup, and is often cut between Lettuce when served as a salad. 
In the North this vegetable is very little known, but in this section there 
is hardly a garden where it is not found. Sow broad-cast during fall 
for winter and spring, and in January and February for summer use. 

CQLLARDS, 

A kind of cabbage which does not head, but the leaves are used the 
same as other Cabbage. Not popular as in former years, and very 
little planted. 

CORN SALAD. 

Mache, Doucet, (Fr.) Acker Salat, (Ger.) Valeriana, (Sp.) 

Broadleaved Corn Salad is the variety generally cultivated. It is 

used as a Salad during the winter and early spring months. Should 

be sown broad-cast during fall and winter, or in drills nine inches 

apart. 

CORN-Indian. 
Mais, (Fr.) Welschkorn, (Ger.) Maiz, (Sp.) 



Golden Dent Gourd Seed. 
Early Yellow Canada. 
Large White Flint. 



Extra Early Dwarf Sugar. 

Adam's Extra Early. 

Early Sugar or Sweet. 

Stowel's Evergreen Sugar. 

Plant in hills about three feet apart, drop four to five seeds and thin 
out to two or three. Where the ground is strong the Adam's Extra Early 
and Crosby's Sugar can be planted in hills two and a half feet apart, as 
these two varieties are more dwarfish than the other varieties. Plant 
for a succession from February till June. 



S-^ 



' .'•'. . 



,r'y 



Extra Early Sugar Com. Early Sugar or New England Corn. 




Evergreen Sugar Corn. 



36 Eichaed Frotscher's Almanac asd Garden Manual 



Extra Early or Crosby's Dwarf Sugar. This is a very early 
variety and of excellent quality. Ears small but very tender. It is not 
so extensively planted as it deserves to be. 

Adam's Extra Early, the most popular variety with market- 
gardeners for first planting. It has do fine table qualities, but as it 
grows to a good size, and is matured in about forty days from time of 
planting, it meets with ready sale in the market, and for these reasons 
gardeners prefer it. 

Early Sugar or Xew England. A long eight rowed variety, 
which succeeds the Extra Early kinds. Desirable variety. 

Stowel's Evergreen Sugar. This is the best of all Sugar 
Corn, it is not an early Corn, but the ears are of large size, and are well 
filled. It remains green longer than any other variety, and is quite 
productive. The cultivation of this excellent cereal, as well as all 
other Sugar Corn is much neglected, yet why people will plant common 
field-corn for table use, considering size instead of quality I cannot 
understand. 

Golden Dent Gourd Seed. A field variety which is very 
productive at the North. It makes very fine Corn South, but has to be 
planted here several years in succession before it attains perfection, 
as during the first year the ears are not well covered by the husk, as it is 
the case with all Northern varieties. When selected and planted here 
for a few years, it becomes acclimated and makes an excellent Corn 
with large fine ears, grain deep and cob of medium size. 

Early Yellow Canada. A long eight rowed variety. Itisvery 
early and is planted in both field and garden. 

Large White Flint. A very popular variety with gardeners 
and amateurs. It is planted here for table use principally, but like the 
Golden Dent makes an excellent variety for field culture after it has 
been planted here for two or three years. 

CRESS. 

Ceesson, (Er.) Kresse, iGer.) Beeeo, (Sp.) 
Used for salad during winter and spring. Sow broad-cast or in 
drills six inches apart. 

Curled or Pepper Grass. Xot much used in this section. 
Broadleaved. This variety is extensively cultivated for the mar- 
ket. It is sown from early fall to late spring. The leaves resemble 
Water Cress ; a variety which does not succeed well here. Is considered 
a very wholesome dish. 

CUCUMBER. 
Concombre, (Ft.) Gurke, (Ger.) Pepino, (Sp.J 

Improved Earlv White Spine. Earlv Cluster. 

Early Frame. Gherkin or Blur (for pickling.) 

Long Green Turkey. 

Cucumbers need rich soil. Plant in hills from three to four feet 
apart, the hills should be made rich with well decomposed manure, 
and eight to ten seeds should be planted in each hill, and covered about 
one half inch deep ; when well up thin out to four plants in the hill. 
Hoe between the hills till the vines meet. When the spring is dry the 



For the Southern States. 



37 



plants ha ve to be water 
can be planted from ] 
planted here in Februa 
boxes with a pane of gl 
day, and put back in th 
plants are kept covered 




Improved Early White Spi 
white when ripe. The 
Of late years it is used bj 
as well as out-door cult 

Early Frame. Anotner early variety, out 
not so popular as the foregoing kind ; it is deep 
green in color, but turns yellow very quickly, there- 
fore gardeners do not plant it much. 

Long: Green Turkey. A long variety, at- 
taining a length of from fifteen to eighteen inches 
when well grown. Very fine and productive. 

Early Cluster. Early, short and prickly; 
and bears in clusters. 




Early Frame. 




Early Cluster. 




West India Gherkin. 



\ 



West India Gherkin. This is an oval variety, small in size. It 
is used for pickling when young and tender. When grown to its full 
size it can be stewed with meat. In fact this is the only use made of 
it about New Orleans. 




EGGPLANT. 

AUBEKGINE, (Fl\) ElEKPELANZE, (Ger.) BEEENGENA, (Sp.) 

The seed should be sown in hot beds in the early part of January. 
When a couple of inches high they should be transplanted into another 
frame, so that the plants may become strong and robust. When -warm 
enough, generally during March, the plants can be placed in the open 
ground about two and a half feet apart. This vegetable is very popular 
in the South, and extensively cultivated. 

L,arge Purple or Mew Orleans Market. This is the only kind 
grown here ; it is large, oval in shape and of a dark purple color, and 
very productive. Southern grown seed of this, as of a good many other 
tropical or sub-tropical vegetables, is preferable to Northern seed, as 
it will germinate more readily, and the plant will last longer during 
the hot season. - 

ENDIVE. 
Chtcoeee, (Fr.) End-even, (Ger.) Endibia, (Sp.) 

A salad plant which is very popular and much cultivated for the 
market, principally for summer use. It can be sown in drills a foot 
apart and when the plants are well up thinned out till about eight 
inches apart. Or it can be sown broad-cast thinly and transplanted 
the same as Lettuce. When the leaves are large enough, say about 
eight inches long, tie them up for blanching, to make them fit for the 
table. This can only be done in dry weather, otherwise the leaves are 
apt to rot. For summer use do not sow before the end of March, as, if 
sown sooner, the plants 
will run into seed very 

JBSSawHB 



early. Sow for a succes- 
sion during the spring and 
summer months. For win- 
ter use sow in September 
and October. 

Green Curled, is the 
most desirable kind, as it 
bears more heat than the 
following sort, and is the 
favorite market variety. 



Ste? 



<$Vv3-<5 







Green Curled Endive. 



.&, 



For the Southern States. 



39 



Extra Fine Curled, does not grow quite so large as the fore- 
going, and is more apt to decay, when there is a wet summer. Better 
adapted for winter. 

Broadleaved or Escarolle, makes a fine salad when well grown 
and blanched, especially for summer. 

KOHL-RABI, or Turniprooted Cabbage. 

Chou Navet, (Fr.) Kohl-Kabi, (Ger.) Col de Nabo, (Sp.) 
This vegetable is very popular with the European population of this 
City, and largely cultivated here. It is used for soups, or prepared in the 
same manner as Cauliflower. 
For late fall and winter use it 
should be sown from the end 
of July till the middle of Octo- 
ber; for spring use, during 
January and February. When 
the young plants are one 
month old transplant them in 
rows one foot apart, and about 
the same distance in the rows. 
They also grow finely if 
sown broad-cast and thinned 
out when young, so that the 
plants are not too crowded ; 
or they may be sown in drills 
and cultivated the same as 
Euta Bagas. 

Early White Vienna, the 

finest variety of all, and the 

only kind I keep. It is early 

forms a smooth bulb, and 

has few small leaves. The Early White Vienna Kohlrabi. 

so-called large White or Green is not desirable. 

LEEK. 

Poireau, (Fr.) Laugh, (Ger.) Puero, (Sp.) 
A species of Onion, highly esteemed for flavoring soups. Should be 
sown broad-cast and transplanted, when about six to eight inches high, 
into rows a foot apart and six iDches apart in the rows. Should be 
planted at least four inches deep. They require to be well cultivated 
in order to insure large roots. Sow in October for winter and spring use, 
and in January and February for summer. 

Earge London Flag:, is the most desirable kind, and that most 
generally grown. 

Earge Carentan. This is a new French variety which grows to 
a very large size. 

LETTUCE. 
Laitue, (Fr.) Lattich, (Ger.) Lechuga, (Sp.) 
Early Cabbage, orWhite Butter- i White Paris Coss. 




Large India Curled. 

Peipignan. 

Im 'roved Large Passion. 



head. 
Improved Boyal Cabbage. 
Brown Dutch Cabbage. 
Drumhead Cabbage. 

Lettuce is sown here during the whoL year by the market-gardener. 
Of course it takes a good deal of labor to produce this vegetable during 



40 



RlCHARD FrOTSCHER's AiMANAC AND GaeDEX MANUAL 



our hot summer months. For directions how to sprout the seed during 
that time, see "Work for June." The richer and better the ground the 
larger the head will be. No finer Lettuce are grown anywhere than 
in New Orleans during fall and spring. The seed should be sown 
broad-cast, and, when large enough, planted out in rows a foot apart, 
and from eight to ten inches apart in the rows. Some kinds grow larger 
than others, for instance Butterhead will not require as much space 
as Drumhead or Perpignan. 

Early Cabbage or White Butter. {^3?SsIa 

An early variety forming a solid head, but 
not quite so large as some others. It is the 
best kind for family use, to sow during fall 
and early spring, as it is very early and of 
good flavor. Early Cabbage or White Butter. 






Improved Royal Cabbage Lettuce. 




White Paris Coss Lettuce, Perpignan Lettuce. 

Improved Royal Cabbage. This is the most popular variety 
in this State. Heads light green, of large size, and about two weeks 
later than the White Butter. It is very tender and crisp, can be sown 
later in the spring than the foregoing kind, and does not run into 
seed so quickly. 

Brown Dutch Cabbage. A very hardy kind, forms a solid 
head, not so popular as many other kinds. 



Drumhead Cabbage. An 

excellent spring variety forming 
large heads, the outer leaves 
curled. 

White Paris Coss. This 
is very popular with the New Or- 
leans market -gardeners, as it is 
the favorite with the French 
population. It grows to perfec- 
tion and forms large fine heads, 
particularly in the spring of the 
year. 







inktj ^ 



Drumhead Cabbage Lettuce. 



For the Southern States. 41 



ILarge India Curled. A variety highly esteemed in the North 
for summer planting, but very little cultivated here. 

Perpi^nan. A fine German variety which forms large light green 
heads, and which stands the heat better than the Royal. It is much 
cultivated for the market, as it thrives well when sown during the latter 
end of spring. 

Improved I^arge Passion. This is a large Cabbage Lettuce 
from California ; it attains a large size, grows slowly, but heads very 
hard. It does better here during late autumn and winter, than in sum- 
mer, as it cannot stand the heat. 



MELON— Musk or Cantaloupe. 

Melon, (Ft.) Melone, (Ger.) Melon, (Sp.) 



Netted Nutmeg. 
Netted Citron. 
Pine Apple. 



Early White Japan. 
Persian or Cassaba. 
New Orleans Market. 



Melons require a rich sandy loam. If the ground is not rich enough 
a couple of shovels full of rotted manure should be mixed into each hill, 
which ought to be from five to six feet apart, drop ten or twelve seeds, 
and when the plants have two or three rough leaves, thin out to three 
or four plants. Oanteloupes are cultivated very extensively in the neigh- 
borhood of New Orleans, and the quality is very fine, far superior to 
those raised in the North. Some gardeners plant during February and 
cover with boxes, the same as described for Cucumbers. When Melons 
are ripening, too much rain will impair the flavor of the fruit. 

Netted Nutmeg* Mellon. Small oval melon, roughly netted, early 
and fine flavor. 

Netted Citron Canteloupe. This variety is larger than the fore- 
going kind, it is more rounded in shape, medium size, and roughly 
netted. 

Pine Apple Canteloupe. A medium sized early variety, oval in 
shape, and of very fine flavor. 

Early White Japan Canteloupe, An early kind, of creamish 
white color, very sweet, and of medium size. 

Persian or Cassaba. A large variety of oval shape, delicate 
flavor. The rind of this kind is very thin, which is a disadvantage in 
handling, and prevents it from being planted for the market. Very 
fine for family use. 

New Orleans Market. A large species of the citron kind. It is 
extensively grown for this market ; large in size, very roughly netted, 
and of lucious flavor ; different altogether from the Northern Netted 
Citron which is earlier, but not so fine in flavor, and not half the size 
as the variety grown here. Small varieties of melons will improve in 
size if cultivated here for a number of years, and if care is taken that 
no Cucumbers, Squashes, Gourds or Pumpkin are cultivated in the 



42 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 




'% *«.Oel 



Note.. — The above cut represents the New Orleans Melon; it has been taken from a common spe- 
cimen grown by one of my customers, who raises the seed of this variety for me. 

vicinity. If the best and earliest specimens are selected for seed, in three 
or four years the fruit will be large and fine. 

MELON-(Water.) 

Melon d'Eau, (Ft.) Wassermelone, (Ger.) Sandia, (Sp.) 

Mountain Sweet. Ice-Cream (White seeded.) 

Mountain Sprout. Orange Water. 

Improved Gipset. 

Water Melon will grow and produce in places where Canteloupe will 
not do well. The soil for this plant should be light and sandy. Plant in 
hiils about eight feet apart, eight to twelve seeds in a hill ; when the 
plants are well up thin out to three. The plants should be hoed often, 
and the ground between hills kept clean till the vines touch. 




Mountain Sweet Water Melon. 



A 






For the Southern States. 



43 




Mountain Sprout Water Melon 




Improved Gipsey Melon. 

Mountain Sweet 'Water. This is a very popular variety, is of 
oblong shape, flesh bright scarlet and of good flavor. It is very pro- 
ductive. 

Mountain Sprout "Water. This is similar in shape to the fore- 
going variety, but rather later. It is light green with irregular stripes 
of dark green. Flesh bright scarlet. 

Improved €wip§ey. This is a lately introduced variety which 
has become the favorite of the market-gardeners. It is very large, 
oblong and of a dark green color, striped and mottled with light green, 
Flesh, scarlet, and of delicious flavor. This is without any exception 
the best market variety. 

lee-Cream. (White seeded.) A medium sized variety of excel- 
lent quality. It is early and very productive. Being thin in the rind it 
is not so well adapted for the market as the other kinds, but notwith- 
standing this, it is grown exclusively by some for that purpose, on 
account of its earliness. 

Orange Water. Quite a distinct variety from the others. The 
rind can be peeled off the same as the skin of an orange. It is of 
medium size, fair quality. Very little cultivated. 

Kattle Snake. An old Southern variety which has come into 
notice since a few years ; it is of large size, the green not quite so dark 
as the G-ipsey, but the stripes larger ; fine market variety. 

MUSTARD. 

Moutarde* (Fr.) Senf, (Ger.) Mostaza, (Sp.) 
White or Yellow Seeded. | Largeleaved. 

This is grown to quite an extent in the Southern States, and is sown 
broad-cast during fall, winter and spring. It may be used the same 
as Spinach, or boiled with meat as greens. The White or Yellow seeded 



* 



44 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



is very little cultivated and is used chiefly for medical purposes, or pick- 
ling. The Largeleaved or Curled has black seed, a distinct kind from 
the Northern or European variety. The seed is raised in Louisiana. It 
makes very large leaves. 

NASTURTIUM. 

Capucine, (Fr.) Indianische Kresse, (Ger.) Capuchina, (Sp.) 
Tall. | Dwarf. 

Xot cultivated here, except for ornament. 

OKRA. 

Tall Growing. | Dwarf. 

This is a highly esteemed vegetable in the South, and no garden, 
whether small or large, is without it. It is used in making "Gumbo," 
a dish the Creoles of Louisiana know how to prepare better than an- 
other people. It is also boiled in salt and water, and served with 
vinegar as a salad, and is considered a very wholesome dish. Should 
not be planted before the ground is warm in spring, as the seeds are 
apt to rot. Sow in drills, which ought to be two to three feet apart, 
and when up thin out, and leave one or two plants every twelve or 
fifteen inches. 




Tall Growing Okra. 

Tali Growing* This is the variety most cultivated here. The 
pods are long, round towards the end, and keep longer tender than the 
square podded kind. 

Dwarf. Cultivated only as being earlier than the former kind. 
The pods are short, thick and ribbed, and not so nice in appearance as 
the Tall Growing variety. 



For the Southern States. 



45 



*v 



ONION. 

Onion, (Fr.) Zwiebel, (Ger. 



Cebolla, (Sp.) 



White, or Silver Skin. 
Creole. 



Yellow Dutch or Strassburg. 
Large Bed Wethersfield. 

The Onion is one of the most important vegetables, and is grown 
to a large extent in Louisiana. Hundreds of barrels are shipped in 
spring from here to" the Western and Northern States. There is one 
peculiar feature about raising Onions here, and that is they can only 
be raised from Southern, or so-called Creole seed. No seed from 
North, West, or any part of Europe will produce a merchantable Onion 
in the South. When the crop of Creole seed is a failure, and they are 
scarce, they will bring a good price, and have been sold as high as ten 
dollars a pound, when at the same time Northern seed could be had 
for one-fourth of that price. Northern raised seed can be sown to be 
used green, but as we have Shallots here which grow during the whole 
autumn and winter, and multiply very rapidly, the sowing of seed for 
green onions is not profitable. Seed should be sown from the middle 
of September to the end of October; if sown sooner too many will 
throw up seed stalks. They are generally sown broad-cast, and when 
the size of a goose quill transplanted into rows one to two feet apart, 
and about five inches in the rows. Onions are different in regard to 
rotation, from other vegetables; they do best if raised on the same 
ground for a succession of years. 




Louisiana, or Creole Onion. 



46 Richard Frotsceer's Almanac and Garden Manual 




Yellow Dutch, or Strassbnrg. A brownish yellow Onion, 
flat and of good size in the North, but does not bulb here. 

JLarge Med Wethersneid. This is the favorite kind v in the 
East, but does not answer here, except to be used green. 

White, or Silver ©lost. A mild variety of the same shape as 
the Strassburg. This variety is more apt to make a small onion here 
than the two foregoing kinds are. 

ILotiiissagaa, or Creole Osiloss. This is generally of a light- 
red color, darker than the Strassburg, and lighter in color than the 
Wethersfield. The seed I have been selling, of this kind, for a number 
of years, has been raised on Bayou Lafourche, and never has failed to 
make fine large Onions. 

SHALLOTS. 

ECHALLOTTE, (Fr.) SCHALLOTTEN, (Ger.) 

A small sized Onion which grows in clumps. It is generally grown 
in the South, and used in its green state for soups, stews, etc. There 
are two varieties, the Eed and White ; the latter variety is the most 
popular. In the fall of the year the bulbs are divided and set out in 
rows a foot apart, and four to six inches in the rows. They grow and 
multiply very fast, and can be divided during winter and set out again. 
Late in spring, when the tops become dry, they have to be taken up, 
thoroughly dried, and stored in a dry airy place. 

PARSLEY. 

Persil, (Fr.) Petersilie, (Ger.) Perjie, (Sp.) 
Plain Leaved. [ Improved Garnishing. 

Double Curled. I 

Parsley can be sown during the fall from August to October, and 
during spring, from end of January to end of April. It is generally 
sown broad-cast. 

Plain -Leaved. This is the kind raised for the New Orleans 
market. 

Double Curled. The leaves of this variety are curled. It has 
the same flavor as the foregoing kind, but is not so popular. 

Improved Garnishing'. This is the best kind to ornament a 
dish ; has the same flavor as the other kinds. 

PARSSSJIP. 

Pan us, (Fr.) Pastinaee, (Ger.) Pastinaca, (Sp.) 

HALLOW CEOWK, OE SUGAE. 
Should be sown in deep mellow soil, deeply spaded, as the roots 
are long, in drills twelve to eighteen inches apart ; when the plants are 
about three inches high thin out to three inches apart in the row. Sow 
from September to November for winter, and January to March for 
spring and summer crops. 

The Hallow Crown, or Siagar, is the kind generally culti- 
vated ; it iDossesses all the good qualities for which other varieties are 
recommended. 

PEAS. 
Pois, (Fr.) Erbse, (Ger.) Gutsante, (Sp.) 
EAELIEST. 
Extra Early, 2i feet. 1 Early Tom Thumb, 1 foot. 

Early Washington, 3 feet. ! Laxton's Alpha, 3 feet. 



1? 



For the Southern States. 



47 



SECOND CEOP. 

Bishop's Dwarf Long Pod, 1| feet. McLean's Little Gem, Ik feet. 



Champion of England, 
McLean's Advancer, 



5 " Laxton's Prolific Long Pod, 3 ft. 
3 " Eugenie, 3 feet. 
GENEEAL CEOP. 
Dwarf Blue Imperial, 3 feet. Large White Marrowfat, 4 feet. 



Dwarf Sugar, 2| feet. 
Tall Sugar, 6 feet. 



Eoyal Dwarf Marrow, 3 feet. 
Black Eyed Marrowfat, 4 feet. 

Peas are a fine vegetable, and therefore are very generally culti- 
vated. It is best to plant in ground manured the previous year, else 
they will make more vines than peas. As a general thing the dwarf 
kinds require richer ground than the tall growing varieties. Marrow- 
fat Peas planted in rich ground will not bear well, but they produce 
finely in sandy light soil. 

The Extra Early, Tom Thumb, or Laxton's Alpha will not produce 
a large crop without being in rich ground. Peas have to be planted in 
drills two inches deep and from two to three feet apart, according to 
the height they may grow. ' Tom Thumb can be planted one foot apart 
whereas White Marrowfat or Cham- 
pion of England require three feet. 
The Extra Early, Alpha, and Tom 
Thumb can be planted during 
August' and September for fall. 
During ISTovem ber and December we 
plant the Marrowfats ; January and 
February, as late as March, all kinds 
can be planted, but for the latter 
.month only the earliest varieties 
should be used, as the late varieties 
will get millclewed before they bring 
a crop. Peas will bear much better 
if some brush or rods are stuck in 
the drills to support them, except 
the very dwarf kinds. 

Extra Early. This is the ear- 
liest Pea cultivated; very popular 
with the small market gardeners 
here, who have rich grounds. It is 
very productive and good flavored. 

Early WasSiiaigtora, Early 
May or FraaBse, which are all 
nearly the same thing ; is about ten 
days later than the Extra Early. It 
is very productive and keeps longer 
in bearing than the foregoing kind. 
Pods a little smaller. Very popular 
about New Orleans, 

Tom Timinfo. Very dwarf 
and quite productive. Can be cul- 
tivated in rows a foot apart ; requires 
no branches or sticks. Extra Early Peas. 




48 Richaed Fkotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Laxton's Alpha. This is a variety of recent introduction ; it is 
the earliest wrinkled variety in cultivation ; of delicious flavor and very 
prolific. This variety deserves to be recommended to all who like a 
first class pea. It will come into general cultivation when better 
known. 

Bishop's Dwarf Long Pod. An early dwarf variety, very stout 
and branching, requires no sticks, but simply the earth drawn round 
the roots. It is very productive and of excellent quality. 

Champion of England. A green wrinkled variety of very fine 
flavor ; not profitable for the market, but recommended for family use. 

McLean's Advancer. This is another green wrinkled variety, 
about two weeks earlier than the foregoing kind. 

McLeans Little €?em. A dwarf wrinkled variety of recent 
introduction. It is early, very prolific and of excellent flavor. Bequires 
no sticks. 

Laxton's Prolific Long - Pod. A green marrow pea of good 
quality. Pods are long and well filled. It is second early, can be 
recommended for the use of market gardeners, being very prolific. 

Eugenie. A white wrinkled variety of fine flavor ; it is of the same 
season as the Advancer. Can not be too highly recommended for 
family use. 

Dwarf JBIue Imperial. A very good bearer if planted early ; 
pods are large and well filled. 

Royal Dwarf Marrow. Similar to the large Marrowfat, but of 
dwarf habit. 

IBlacIs Eyed Marrowfat. This kind is planted more for the 
market than any other. It is very productive and when young, quite 
tender. Grows about four feet high. 

Large White Marrowfat. Similar to the last variety, except 
that it grows about two feet taller and is less productive. 

Dwarf Sugar. A variety where the whole pod can be used, after 
the string is drawn off from the back of the pod. Three feet high. 

Tall Sugar, has the same qualities as the foregoing kind, only 
grows taller and the pods are somewhat larger. Neither of these two 
varieties are very popular here. 

THE PEA BUG. 

All peas grown near Philadelphia have small holes in them, caused 
by the sting of the Pea Bug, while the pod is forming, when it deposits 
its egg in it. Later the insect perfects itself and comes out of the dry 
pea, leaving the hole. 

The germ of the pea is never destroyed, and they grow equally as 
well as those without holes. Market gardeners in this neighborhood 
who have been planting the Extra Early Pea for years, will not take 
them without holes, and consider these a trade mark. 

FIELD OR COW PEAS. 

There are a great many varieties of Cow Peas, different in color and 
growth. They are planted mostly for fertilizing purposes ; that is sown 
broad-cast, and when a good stand and of sufficient height, they are 
plowed under. The Clay Pea is the most popular. There are several 
varieties, called crowders, which do not grow as tall as the others, but 



For the Southern States. 



49 



produce a great many pods which are used green the same as snapbeans, 
and if dried like dried beans. They make a very good dish. The crowders 
are of an oblong shape, almost pointed at one end ; they are on an 
average larger than the other Field Peas. Lady Peas are small, white 
with a black eye ; they are generally planted between corn, so that they 
can run upon it. Dry they are considered the best variety for cooking, 

PEPPER. 

Piment, (Fr.) Spanischer Pfeffer, (Ger.) Pimento, (Sp.) 



Bell or Bull Nose. 
Sweet Spanish Monstrous. 



Lono Red Cayenne. 
Red Cherry. 



Peppers are tender and require to be raised in the hot bed. Seed 
should be sown in January, and when large enough transplanted into 
the ground in rows from one and a 
half to two feet apart, and a foot to a 
foot and a half in the rows. There are 
morePeppers raised here than in other 
sections of the country ; the hot varie- 
ties are used for seasoning and mak- 
ing pepper sauce, the mild variety is 
highly esteemed for salad. Care 
should be taken not to grow different 
kinds close together as they mix very 
readily. 

Sweet §panish,or Monstrous. 
— A very popular variety, and much 
cultivated, and used for salad. It is 
very mild, grows to a large size, taper- 
ing towards the end. 

Bell or Bull Nose. Is a large 

oblong variety which is not sweet or 

mild as thought by some. The seeds 

are very hot. Used for pickling. 

Long Red Cayenne.— Is very 
hot and pungent. Cultivated here and 
used for pepper sauce, and seasoning- 
purposes. 

Red Cherry.— A small roundish 
variety, very hot and productive. 




Sweet Spanish, or Monstrous. 





Red Cherry. 



Long Red Cayenne. 



50 



Richard Frotscher's Alatanac and Garden Manual 



POTATOES. 
Pomme de Terre, (Fr.) Kartoffel, (Ger.) 



.Early Rose. 
Jackson White. 
Breese's Peerless. 
Breese's Prolific. 



Russets. 

Extra Early Yeratont. 

Snowflake. 



Potatoes thrive and produce best in a light, dry but rich soil. 
Well decomposed stable manure is the best, but if it cannot be had 
cotton seed meal, bone dust or any other fertilizer should be used, to 
make the ground rich enough. If the ground was planted the fall 
previous with Cow peas which were plowed under, it will be in good 
condition for potatoes. Good sized tubers should be selected for planting, 
which can be cut in pieces, not too small ; each piece ought to contain 
at least three eyes. Plant in drills from two to three feet apart, accord- 
ing to the space and how to be cultivated afterwards. For field culture 
two and a half to three feet apart ; for garden, two feet will answer. 
We plant potatoes here from end of December to end of March, but 
the surest time is about the first of February. If planted early they 
should be planted deeper than if planted late, and hilled up as they 
grow. If potatoes are planted shallow and not hilled soon, they will 
suffer more if caught by a late frost than if planted deep and hilled up 
well. Early potatoes have not the same value here as in the North, as 
the time of planting is so long, and very often the first planted get cut 
down by a frost, and a later planting which may just be peeping 
through the ground will escape and produce in advance of the first 
planted. A fair crop of potatoes can be raised here, if planted in 
August; if the autumn is not too dry they will bring nice tubers by 
end of November. They should not be cut if planted at this time of 
the year, but planted whole. Potatoes from those raised in spring can 
be used for seed purposes. They should be put in a moist place, before 
planting, so they may sprout. The early varieties are preferable for 
this time of planting. ^ 

I have been handling several thousand barrels of Potatoes every 
season for planting, and make seed potatoes a speciality. The Pota- 
toes I sell are Eastern grown, which as every one interested in Potato 
culture knows, are superior and preferable to Western grown. Eight 
years ago I introduced the Peerless Potato here. I then only re- 
ceived ten barrels, as the price was very high; but seeing the fine 
qualities of the same, and finding it to suit our climate, I contracted 
the following year for a considerable lot, and urged my customers to 
plant them. No one has been disappointed in the result. It was 
during that same year that amongst a lot of Jackson Whites sent out 
here from New York, there were one hundred barrels of Peerless Po- 
tatoes. Merchants are not very particular in regard to name, and 
they were sold for Goodrich, Jackson Whites, or anything else they 
resembled. They are well known now, and the kind mostly planted. 
I brought out five years ago the Extra Early Yermont, BrownelFs 
Beauty, and Compton's Surprise. The latter variety I have discarded ; 



For the Southern States. 



51 



it is not salable on account of its purplish color. Three years ago the 
Snowflake was the sensation. I believe this latter will become popular 
in the course of time. 

After another year's trial I have discarded the BrownelPs Beauty. 
It is of very good quality, productive, but not salable in the market on 
account of its color, which resembles the Russet, one of the most 
common Potatoes received here from the West. The Snowflake did not 
do as well last year as the year before ; they did not produce as well, 
neither did they keep as well as the Peerless, a great point to consider 
where they are raised for shipping. I may state here that the seed I 
had of them last season was genuine and true to name, but poor 
samples, as most of the Eastern Potatoes the past year. This year the 
crop East has been good and samples as fine as I ever have had them. 
Will give the Snowflake another fair trial this year. I have had six 
other new varieties under trial, but did not find anything to justify the 
high price asked for them, for our section. The Alpha is a fine white 
early kind, but not productive. Ruby and other varieties are pinkish 
which always is an objection for this market. These fancy prices for 
new potatoes do not pay here, as we can keep none over for seed, and 
any person raising for the market would not realize a cent more for a 
new fancy variety per barrel than for a barrel of good Peerless or Early 
Rose. Earliness is no consideration as we plant from December to end 
of March; somebody may plant Early Rose.in December and another 
in February and .those plauted in February come to the market first, 
depends entirely upon the season ; if late frosts set in, early planted 
potatoes will be cut down and those just coming out of the ground will 
not be hurt. I have several new kinds on trial this year, among them 
the Beauty of Hebron, which promises to be a very good potato. The 
Jackson White has given but little satisfaction this and last year, ex- 
cept in cases where planted very early. The yield was good, but the 
quality poor and very knotty, perhaps this was the fault of the season. 

Early Rose. This is without any doubt the best potato for the 
table. It is oval, very shallow-eyed, pink skinned, very dry and mealy 
when boiled. It has not become so popular as it deserves as a market 
variety, as pink or red potatoes do not sell so well here as the white 
kinds. This variety should not be planted too soon, from the fact that 
they make small stalks, and if cut down by frost, they suffer more than 
other varieties. No better potato for family use. Every one who 
plants ought to plant some of this variety, but they want rich, light 
soil to grow to perfection. 

Jackson White. This is a very popular kind here in New Or- 
leans and before the Peerless was introduced it was the leading Potato. 
It is not quite so early as the Peerless. It is white, has a great many 
eyes, and is of very good quality. When grown here it gets smoother 
than when produced in the East. It keeps well, and during wet sea- 
sons rots less than any other variety. 

Breese's Peerless. Only six years since this variety was intro- 
duced, yet at present it is the leading variety for market as well as for 
family use. Skin dull white, sometimes slightly russetted ; eyes few 
and shallow, round, occasionally oblong ; grows to a large size, very 
productive and earlier than the Jackson White. As white potatoes are 



52 



RlCEARD FrOTSCHER's AiMANAC and Garden aIantal 



more salable than pinkish kinds, and as this variety is handsome in 
appearance, and of good quality, it has become the general favorite in 
this section. 

Breese's Prolific. This is another new sort ; the vines are short ; 
tubers from medium to large, very regular and very smooth. Skin 
dull white, slightly russetted : eyes shallow and pinkish. Flesh white, 
very niealy and of fine quality ; not quite so productive here as the 
foregoing kind. ; 

Rus§et§. This kind is still planted by some. It is round, redish 
and slightly russetted. Eyes deep and many. Very productive, but 
not so tine in quality as some others. If the season is dry it will do 
well, but in a wet season, this variety will rot quicker than any other. 



Extra Early Ver- 
mont. Very similar to 
the Early Eose, but of 
a stronger growth, a 
little earlier, and the 
tubers are more uniform 
and larger. It is an ex- 
cellent table variety. 

Siiowflake. This is 
a very early variety : 
tubers good medium 
size, elongated, very 
uniform and quite pro- 
ductive. Eyes flat on the 
body of the tuber, but 
compressed on the seed 
end. Skin white, flesh 
very fine grained, and 
when boiled snow-white 
For an early market 
variety it can not be 
surpassed, and will come 
into general cultivation 
when better known. 




Extra Earlv Vermont. 



For the Southern States. 



53 




Snowflake. 



THE SWEET POTATO. 

Convolvulus batatas. 

The Sweet Potato is next to corn the most important food crop in 
the South. They are a wholesome and nutritious diet, good for man 
and beast. Though cultivated to a limited extent on the sandy lands 
of New Jersey and some of the middle States, it thrives -best on the 
light rich sands of the South which bring their red and golden fruits to 
greatest perfection under the benign rays of a southern sun. It is a 
plant of a warm climate, a child of the sun, much more nutritious than 
the Irish Potato on account of the great amount of saccharine matter 
it contains, and no southern table should be found without it from the 
first day of August till the last day of May. Some plant early in spring 
the potato itself in the prepared ridges, and cut the vine from the 
potato when large enough, and plant them out ; others start the pota- 
toes in a bed prepared expressly for that purpose, and slip off the 
sprouts as they come up, and set these out. The latter method will 
produce the earliest potatoes, others who set out the vines, say that they 
make the largest tubers. In preparing the land the soil should be 
thoroughly pulverized, the ridges laid off about five feet apart, well 
drawn up and rather flat on top. If everything is ready and time for 
planting has arrived do not wait for a rain, make a paste of clay and 
cow manure, in this dip the roots of the slips and press the earth firmly 
around them. Old slips are more tenacious of life than young ones, and 
will under these circumstances answer best. Watering afterwards, if 
dry weather continues, of course, will be beneficial. Otherwise plant 
your vines or slips just before or after a rain. Two feet apart in the 
row is considered a good distance. The ridges should never be dis- 
turbed by a plow from the time they are made until the potatoes are 
ready to be dug. 

Scrape off the grass and young weeds with the hoe and pull up the 
large ones by hand. Crab grass is peculiarly inimical to the sweet 



54 Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



potato and should be kept carefully out of the patch. The vines should 
never be allowed to take root between the rows. Sweet potatoes should 
be dug before a heavy frost occurs, a very light one will do no. harm. 
The earth should be dry enough to keep it from sticking to the potatoes. 
The old fashioned potato bank is the best arrangement for keeping 
them, the main points being a dry place and ventilation. Varieties 
generally cultivated in the South. 

The Tain. Taking into consideration quality and productiveness 
the Yam stands at the head of the list. Frequently when baked, the 
saccharine matter in the shape of candy will be seen hanging to them 
in strings. Skin and flesh yellow, and very sweet. Without a doubt 
the best potato for family use. 

The Bermuda. This variet}' is perhaps a little more productive 

and earlier than the preceeding, but far behind it in quality. Skin red. 

flesh white and mealy, and on that account not very popular as a table 

potato. 

Shangliai or California Yam, This is the earliest variety 

we have, frequent!}', under favorable circumstances, giving good sized 
tubers two months after planting the vine. Very productive, having 
given 300 bushels per acre when planted early and on rich land. Is al- 
most the only kind cultivated for the New Orleans market. Skin dull 
white or yellow, flesh white, dry and mealy, in large specimens fre- 
quently stringy. 

There are some other varieties of Sweet Potatoes highly prized in 
the West, but are not appreciated here. The Red and Yellow Nanse- 
mond are of fine quality and productive, but will not sell so well as the 
California Yam when taken to market. For home consumption they 
are fine ; and deserve to be cultivated. 



PUMPKIN. 

Potiron, (Fr.) Kuerbiss, (Ger.) Calabaza, (Sp.) 

Kentucky Field. Cashaw Crook Neck. 

Large Cheese. J 

Are generally grown in the field, with the exception of the Cashaw, 
which is planted in the garden ; but great care must be taken not to 
have them close to Squashes or Melons, as they will mix and spoil the 
quality of the same. Plant in hills from eight to twelve feet apart. 

Kentucky Field. Large round, soft shell, salmon color, very 
productive ; best for stock. 

Large Cheese. This is of a bright orange, sometimes salmon 
color, fine grained and used for the table or for stock feeding. 

Cashaw (Crook iVeck.) This is very extensively cultivated in 
the South for table use. There are two kinds, one all yellow and the 
other green striped with light yellow color. The latter is the preferable 
kind, the flesh is grained, yellow and very sweet. It keeps well. This 
variety takes the place here of the Winter Squashes, which are very 
little cultivated. 



MS 



For the Southern States. 



55 



RADISH. 

Eadies, Rave, (Fr.) Radies, Rettig, (Ger.) Rabano, (Sp.) 



Early Long Scarlet. 
Early Scarlet Turnip. 
Yellow Summer Turnip. 
Early Scarlet Olive Shaped. 



White Summer Turnip. 
Scarlet Half Long French. 
Black Spanish (Winter.) 
Chinbse Rose (Winter. ) 



The 



This is a very popular vegetable, and grown to a large extent, 
ground for radishes should be rich and mellow. 
The early small varieties oan be sown broad-cast 
among other crops, such as beets, peas, spinach, 
or where lettuce has been transplanted. Early 
varieties are sown in this section the whole year, 
but during summer they 
require frequent watering 
to make them grow quick- 
ly. The Yellow and White 
Summer Turnip are best 
for planting during the 
summer months. The 
Half Long Scarlet French 
is the only red kind raised 
for the New Orleans mar- 
ket,and all the other cities 
in the United States taken 
together do not use as 

many of that one variety Early Scarlet Turnip. Early Long Scarlet, 

as New Orleans does. I have sold nearly two thousand pounds of the 
seed per annum for the last twelve years. 

Early Long Scarlet. This is a very desirable variety, it is of 
a bright scarlet color, short top, and very brittle. 

Early Scarlet Turnip. A small y^ 

round variety, the favorite kind for family jjjp 

use. It is very early, crisp and mild when 
young. 







Scarlet Half Long French. 



Yellow Summer Turnip. 



IL 



56 



Kichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Yellow Summer Turnip, This stands the heat better than 
the foregoing kinds. It is of an oblong shape, yellow, russetted on the 
top. It should be sown very thinly. Best adapted for summer and 
fall sowing. 

Early Scarlet Olive Shaped. This is similar to the Half 
Long French, but shorter, and not quite so bright in color. It is early 
and of good quality. Top short. 

White Summer Turnip. This is a summer and fall variety. 

Oblong in shape, skin white, stands the heat well, but is not much 

used. 

Scarlet Half Long French. This is the most popular Kadish 

for the market. It is of a bright scarlet color, and when well grown 

from two to three inches long, very brittle and tender. 

Black Spanish. (Winter.) This is sown during fall and early 
winter. It is oval in shape, very solid and stands considerable cold 
weather without being hurt. It can be sown broad-cast between 
Turnips, or planted in rows a foot apart, and thinned out from three to 
four inches in the rows. 

Chinese Rose. (Winter.) This is of a half long shape, bright 
rose color. It is as hardy as the last described kind, but not so 
popular. 

ROQUETTE. 
Roquette, (Fr.) 

Sown from September to March. It is used as a salad, resembling 
the Cress in taste. 



SALSIFY, or Oyster Plant. 

Salsifis, (Fr.) Haeekwurzel, (Ger.) Ostra 
Vegetal, (Sp.) 

A vegetable which ought to be more culti- 
vated than it is. It is prepared in different 
ways. It partakes of the flavor of oysters. 
It should be sown in the fall of the year ; not 
later than November. The ground ought to 
be manured the spring previous, and deeply 
spaded up, and well pulverized. Sow in drills 
about ten inches apart, and thin out to three 
to four inches in the rows. 

SPINACH. 

Epinard, (Fr.) Spinat, (Ger.) Espinago, (Sp.) 
Extra Large Leaved Savoy. 
Broad Leaved Flanders. 
A great deal of this is raised for the New 
Orleans market. It is very popular. Sown 
from September to end of March. If the fall 
is dry and hot, it is useless to sow it, as the 
seeds require moisture and cool nights to 
make them come up. The richer the ground, 
the larger the leaves. 

Extra Sparge ILeaved Savoy. The 
leaves of this variety are large, thick and a 
little curled. It does not grow so strong as 
the following kind. 




Salsify or Oyster Plant. 



Gs 



For the Southern States. 



57 



Broad Leaved Flanders. This is the standard variety both 
for market and family use. Leaves large, broad and very succulent. 

SORREL. 

Oseille, (Fr.) Sauerampfer, (GerJ Acedera, (Sp.) 
Planted in drills a foot apart, during the fall of the year; and 
thinned out to three to four inches in the drills. Sorrel is used for 
various purposes in the kitchen. It is used the same as Spinach ; also, 
in soups and as a salad. 

SQUASH. 
Courge, (Fr.) Kuerbiss, (Ger.) Calabaza Tontanera, (Sp.) 
Early Bush, or Patty Pan. , London Vegetable Marrow. 



Long Green, or Summer Crook- 
Neck. * 



The Hubbard. 
Boston Marrow, 



Sow during March in hills from three to four feet apart, six to 
eight seeds. When, well up thin them out to three of the strongest 
plants. For a succession they can be planted as late as June. Some 
who protect by boxes plant as soon as the first of February, but it is 
best to wait till the ground gets warm. When it is time to plant Corn, 
it is time to plant Squash. 




Early Bush or Patty Pan. Long Green or Summer Crook-Neck. 



The Hubbard. 



Early Bush, or Patty Pan. Is the earliest and the only 
popular kind here. All other varieties are very little cultivated, as the 
Cashaw Pumpkin, the striped variety takes their place. It is of dwarf- 
ish habit, grows bushy and does not take much room. 

JLoiig Green, or Summer Crook-Neck. This is a very strong 
grower, and continues in bearing longer than the first named kind. It 
is of good quality, but not so popular. 

JLoiMlon Vegetable Marrow, A European variety, very little 
cultivated here. It grows to a good size and is very dry. Color whitish 
with a yellow tinge. 

The Hubbard. This is a Winter Squash, very highly esteemed 
in the East, but hardly cultivated here. 

Boston Harrow. Cultivated to a large extent North and East 
for Winter use, where it is used for custards, etc. It keeps for a long 



58 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



time and is of excellent quality, but not esteemed here, as most people 
consider the Southern grown Cashaw Pumpkin superior to any "Winter 
Squash. 

TOMATO. 
Tomate, (Ft.) Liebesapfel, (Ger.) Tomate, (Sp.) 



Trophy, (selected.) 
Large Yellow. 
Acme, (new.) 



Extra Early Dwarf Eed, (new.) 

Early Large Smooth Red. 

Feejee Island. 

Tilden. 

Seed should be sown in January in hot beds, or in boxes which 

must be placed in a sheltered spot, or near windows. In March they 

can be sown in the open ground. Tomatoes are generally sown too thick, 

and become too crowded when two to three inches high, \*tfiich makes 

the plants too thin and spindly. If they are transplanted when two or 

three inches high, about three inches apart each way, they will become 

short and sturdy, and will not suffer when planted out into the open 

ground. Plant them from three to four feet apart. Some varieties 

can be planted closer; for instance for the Extra Early, which is of very 

dwarfish habit, two and a 

half feet apart is enough. 

They should be supported 

by stakes, when allowed to 

grow up wild ; the fruit 

which touches the ground 

will rot. For a late or fall 

crop the seed should be 

sown towards the latter end 
of May and during June. 

Extra Early Dwarf, 

(New.) This is the earliest 
in cultivation. It is dwarf- 
ish in habit; fruit larger 
than the following kind, 
and more flat, bright scar- 
let in color and very pro- 
ductive. For an early mar- Extra Early Dwarf. (New.) 

ket variety it can not 
be surpassed. 

Early Large 
Smooth ISed. One 
of the earliest; me- 
dium size ; skin light 
scarlet, smooth and 
productive. 

Feejee Island. 
A large variety, very 
solid, and of pinkish 
color. Good for a 
late variety. 

Tilden. This is 

the standard variety 

Selected Trophy. for family garden as 





A 



p»2> 



Foe the Southern States. 



59 



* 



well as market. It 
is of a good shape, 
brilliant scarlet, 
and from above me- 
dium to large in 
size. It keeps well 
and is planted for 
the general crop. 

Selected. Tro- 
phy* A very large, 
smooth Tomato, 
more solid and 
heavy than any 
other kind. It is 
not quite as 
as the Tilden 



early 
Has 



become a favorite 
variety. 

LitBLYge Yellow. 
This is similar in shape 
to the Large Eed, but 
more solid. Not very 
popular. 

Acme. This is a 
new variety and the 
prettiest and most sol- 
id Tomato ever intro- 
duced It is of medium 
size, round and very 
smooth, a strong grow- 
er and a good and long 
bearer. They are the 
perfection of Tomatoes 
for family use, but will 
not answer for ship- 
ping purposes ; the 
skin is too tender and 
cracks when fully ripe. 




The New Acme. 



TURNIP. 

Navet, (Fr.) Euebe, (Ger.) Nabo Comun, (Sp.) 



Early Eed or Purple Top, 

(strap-leaved.) 
Early White Flat Dutch 

"" (strap-leaved,) 
Large White Globe. 
Pomerian Globe. 



Yellow Aberdeen. 
Golden Ball. 
Purple Top Euta Baga. 
Improved Euta Baga. 
Extra Early White French, or 
White Egg Turnip, (new.) 



White Spring. 

Turnips do best •in. new ground, When the soil has been worked 
long, it should receive a top dressing of land plaster or ashes. If 
stable manure is used the ground should be manured the spring 
previous to sowing, so it may be well incorporated with the soil. When 
fresh manure is used, the turnips are apt to become specked. Sow 



60 



Richard Frotscher's Aimaxag akd G-arden Manual 



from end of July till October for fall and winter,, and in January.. Feb- 
ruary and March for spring and summer use. They are generally 
sown broad-cast, but the Ruta Baga should be sown in drills., or rather 
ridges ; and should not be sown later than end of August. The Golden 
Ball and Aberdeen not later than end of September. The white 1 lat 
Dutch. Early Spring and Pomerian 
Globe are best for spring, but also 
good for autumn. 





Earlv Bed or Purple Top : (Strap-Leaved) , 



Improved Purple Top Kuta Baga. 



Early Red, or 
Purple Top 'Strap- 
Leaved J This is one 
of the most popular 
kinds ; it is flat, with 
a small tap-root, and 
a bright purple top. 
The leaves are nar- 
row and grow erect 
from the bulb. The 
flesh is fine grained 
and rich. 

E arly White 
Flat Dutch,' Strap- 
Leaved.') This is simi- 
lar to the above in 
shape.but considered 

ST^SSS?" '' Earlv Wnite Hat Dutcn. (Strap-Lea 

Earsje White Globe. A very large variety, mostly grown xor 
stock. It can be used for the table when young. Flesh coarse, but 
sweet. Tops very large. 




Foe the Southern States. 



61 



PomerianGlofoc 

This is selected from 
the above; i t i s 
smoother and hand- 
somer in shape. Good 
to plant early in 
spring. When pulled 
before it is too large, 
it is a very salable 
turnip in the market. 

White Spring. 

This is similar to the 
White Flat Dutch; 
not quite so large, 
but rounder in shape. 
The tops are larger. 
It is early, a good 
quality, and best 
adapted for spring- 
planting. 

Yellow Aber- 
deen. This is a va- 
riety very little culti- 
vated here. It is 
shaped like theEuta 




Extra Early White French, 
above ; bulb smoother, with but few fibrous roots 



Pomerian Globe. 



Baga, color yellow with purple 
top. Good for the table or feed- 
ing stock. 
Robertson's Golden Ball. 

Is the best of the yellow Turnips 

for table use. It is very smooth, 

oval in shape, and of a beautiful 

orange color. Leaves are small. 

Should be sown in the fall of the 

year, and always in drills, so 

that the plants can be thinned 

out and worked. This kind ought 

to be more cultivated. 
Purple Top Ruta Baga 

or Swede. This is grown for 

feeding stock and also for table 

use. It is oblong in shape, yellow 

flesh, very solid. Should always 

be sown in rows or ridges. 

Improved Purple Top 

Ruta Baga. Similar to the 



62 



BlCHARD FrOTSCHER's ALMANAC AND GARDEN MaNUAL 



Extra Early WMte Frencb, or WSsite Egg- Tiarnip. This 
is a lately introduced variety- ; is said to be very early, tender and crisp. 
The shape of it is oblong, resembling an egg. This is the first year I 
have it on trial, it had not matured yet to pronounce upon the qualities. 

SWEET AND IVlEDiCINAL HERBS. 

Some of these possess culinary as well as medicinal properties, 
Should be found in every garden. Ground where they are to be sown 
should be well prepared and pulverized. Some of them have very fine 
seed, and it is only necessary after the seed is sown to press the ground 
AYith the back of the spade ; if covered too deep they cannot come up. 
Early spring is the best time to sow them ; some, such as Sage, Kose- 
mary, Lavender and Basil, are best sown in a frame and afterwards 
transplanted into the garden. 

xinise, PimjAnelle Anisum. 

Balm, Melisse officinalis. . 

Basil, large and small leaved, Ocymum basilicum, 

Bene, Sesamum orientixle. 

Borage, Borago officinalis. 

Caraway, Carum carni. 

Dill, Anethum graveolens. 

Fennel, sweet, Anethum foeniculum. 

Lavender, Lavendula vera. 

Majoram, sweet, Origanum mayor am. 

Pot Marigold, Calendula officinalis. 

Bosemary, BAseiiiary officinalis. 

Bue, Buia graveolens. 

Sage, Salvia officinalis. 

Summer Savory, Satureja hortensis. 

Thynie, Thymus vulgaris. 

Wormwood, Artemisia absinthium. 



GRASS AND FIELD SEEDS. 

I have often been asked what kind of Grass seed is the best for this 
latitude, but so far I have never been able to answer these questions 
satisfactorily. For hay I do not think there is anything better than 
the Millet. For permanent grass I have almost come to the conclusion 
that none of the grasses used for this purpose North and West will 
answer. Bye, Bed Oats and Bescue Grass will make winter pasturage 
in this latitude. Different kinds of Clover answer very well during 
spring, but during the hot summer months I have never found anything 
to stand and produce except the Bermuda and Crabgrass which are 
indigenous to the South. The former does not seed and has to be 
propagated bj' roots. In my opinion it is better suited for pasturage than 
for hay, as it is rather short and hard when cured. I have had so 
many applications for Guinea Grass that I have been induced to import 
some from Jamaica, where it is used altogether for pasturage. It seems 
to grow rank, but so far I am not enabled to pass an opinion upon it ; 



HSB 



For the Southern States. 63 



it looks rather coarse for hay. Having tried the Guinea Grass another 
year I have come to the conclusion that it will not answer for here, from 
the fact that it will freeze out every year. It will produce a large 
quantity of hay or green fodder, but has to be resown every spring. 
The seeds that are raised here are light, and do not germinate freely. 
To import seed every year is rather troublesome. The Johnson Grass 
advertised by some as Guinea Grass is not the Guinea Grass ; it is much 
coarser and can hardly be destroyed after having taken hold of a piece 
of ground. Some are enthusiastic about Alfalfa or Lucerne, others, 
whose opinion ought also to be respected, say it will not do here. There 
exists a great difference of opinion in regard to which Grass seed is 
most suitable for the South. 

Red C§© ver. Should be sown either during fall or- early in spring. 
Six to eight pounds to an acre. 

WMte I>aatcn Clover. A grass sown for pasturage at the rate 
of four to six pounds to the acre. Should be sown in early spring. 

Alsike Clover. This is also called Hybrid Clover ; it is a native 
of Sweden, a cold climate, and does not succeed so well here as the 
other kinds, because of burning out in summer. 

Alfalfa or Ctaili Clover, or French Litcerwe. This variety 
does well here, but the ground has to be well prepared, and deeply 
plowed. It will not do in low wet ground. Should be sown in January 
or February ; eight to ten pounds per acre. 

BLeaitiicliy JSIiHe Grass, (Extra Cleaned.) Should be sown in 
dry soil. Two bushels per acre. 

©rctiard Grass. This is one of the best grasses for pasturing. 
It grows quickly, much more so than the Blue Grass. Can be sown 
either in fall or spring, sow one to one and a half bushel per acre. 

Rescue Grass. A forage plant from Australia, it grows during 
winter. Sow the seed in f ^ *~ 11 of the year, but not before the weather 
gets cool, as it will not sprout so long as the ground is warm. 

Hungarian Grass. This is a valuable annual forage plant and 
good to make hay. Sow three pecks to the acre. It should be cut 
when in bloom. 

German Millet. Of all the Millets this is the best. It makes 
good hay, and produces heavily. Three pecks sown to the acre broad- 
cast secures a good stand. Can be sown from April till June, but the 
former month is the best time, should be cut the same as the foregoing- 
kind. 

Rye. Is sown during the fall months as late as December for 
forage, and for pasturage during winter and spring. 

Barly, Fall. Can be sown fall and winter, but requires strong 
good soil. Used here for forage during its green state. 

Red or Rust Proof Oats. It is only a few years since these 
oats have come into general cultivation. They are very valuable and 
will save a great deal of corn on a farm. The seed of this variety has 
a redish cast, and a peculiar long beard, and is very heavy. It is the 
only kind which will not rust in the Southern climate. They can be 
sown as early as October, but should*be pastured down as soon as they 
commence to joint, till February. When the ground is low, or the 
season wet this can not well be done without destroying the whole crop. 



&L. 






391 



64 Richard Feotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



During January and February is the proper time ; if no pasturing can 
be done. One to one and a half bushel per acre is sufficient. These 
oats have a tendency to stool, and therefore do not require as much per 
acre as common oats. Those who have not already tried this variety, 
should do so. 

Sorghum. Is planted for feeding stock during the spring and 
early summer. For this purpose it should be sown as early in spring 
as possible in drills about two to three feet apart ; three to four quarts 
per acre. It makes excellent green fodder. 

Broom Corn, Can be planted the same as corn, but the hills closer 
together in the row. Six quarts will plant an acre. 

East India, Millet. Last years Almanac gave a full description 
of this forage plant, written by E. M. Hudson, Esq. It has proven to 
be all what has been claimed for. Price per H> . 



■» <o> » » 



DIRECTIONS FOR PLANTING. 



The directions given here are for the Southern part of Louisiana. 
If applied to localities North of here, the time of planting will not be 
quite as early in spring, and earlier in fall. For instance : the direc- 
tions for January will answer for February in the Northern part of 
this State and Southern part of Mississippi or Arkansas. In autumn, 
directions for September can be followed in August. In those sections, 
very little can be planted in November and December. 



JANUARY. 

Sow Spinach, Mustard, Carrots, Beets, Parsnips and Leeks, the 
early varieties of Eadish, and for the last crop, the Black Spanish. 

Sow Spring and Purple Top Turnip. Euta Baga also may be sown, 
for table use later in spring. 

Sow Lettuce, Endive, Cabbage, Broccoli, Kohlrabi and Early Cauli- 
flower ; the latter best sown in a frame to be transplanted next month. 

Cress, Chervil, Parsley and Celery for cutting, should be sown this 
month. Sow Eoquette and Sorrel. 

If the hot bed has not been prepared already, make it at once to 
sow Egg Plant, Pepper and Tomatoes. 

All kinds of Herb seed may be sown during this month. Plant 
Peas for a general crop, towards t^ie last of the month the Extra Early 
varieties can be planted. 

Plant Potatoes, but the Early Eose should not be planted before 
the latter end of this month. 



For the Southern States. 



65 



Divide and transplant Shallots. Transplant Cabbage plants sown 
in November. Onions, if not already set out, should be hurried with 
now, so they may have time to bulb. Those who desire to raise Onion 
sets, should sow the seeds this month, as they may be used for setting 
out early in the fall, and can be sold sooner than those raised from 
seed. Creole seed is the only kind which can be used to raise sets 
from. Northern seed will not make sets. This I know from exper- 
ience. Asparagus roots should be set out this month. 

Red Oats can be sown. I consider these and German Millet the 
two best forage plants for Louisiana. 

Cucumbers can be planted in the hot bed ; they are mostly planted 
here during November and December, but if the hot bed is properly 
made those planted in this month will bear better than those planted 
in November. 



FEBRUARY. 

All winter vegetables can be sown this month ; such as Spinach, 
Mustard, Carrots, Beets, Parsnip and Leeks. Also the early varieties 
of Radishes and Spring and Purple Top Turnip, Swiss Chard and Kohl- 
rabi. 

Sow for succession Lettuce, Cabbage and Early Cauliflower ; if the 
season is favorable and the month of April not too dry the latter may 
succeed. 

Cauliflower and Cabbage plants should be transplanted ; Shallots 
divided and set out again. 

Sow Sorrel, Roquette, Chervil, Parsley, Cress and Celery. 

Peas of all kinds can be planted, especially the early varieties. 
The late kinds should be sown in January, but they may be planted 
during this month. 

This is the time to plant the general crop of Potatoes. On an 
average they will succeed better when planted during this, than during 
any other month. 

Herb seeds should be planted ; tender varieties best sown in a 
frame, and transplanted into the open ground afterwards. 

Asparagus roots can be planted ; this is the proper month to sow 
the seeds of this vegetable. 

Plants in the hot bed will require attention ; give air when the sun 
shines and the weather is pleasant. If too thick, thin out so they may 
become sturdy. 

Bush Beans can be commenced with this month ; Cucumbers, 
Squash and Melons may be tried, as they often succeed ; if protected 
by small boxes, as most gardeners protect them, there is no risk at all. 

Corn can be planted towards the end of this month, For market, 
the Adams Extra Early and Early White Flint are planted. I recom- 
mend the Sugar varieties for family use ; they are just as large as those 
mentioned, and Crosby's Extra Early is as large as any variety grown. 

Mangel "Wurtzel and Sugar Beet should be sown this month for 
stock. Sweet Potatoes can be put in a bed for sprouting, so as to have 
early slips. 



MARCH. 

Sow Beets, Eaclish, Cabbage, early varieties; Kohlrabi, Lettuce, 
Spinach, Mustard, Carrots, Swiss Chard and Leek. 

Also, Celery for cutting, Parsley, Roquette, Cress and Chervil. 
The latter part of the month sow Endive. Of Lettuce, the Royal Cab- 
bage and Perpignan ; the White Coss is a favorite variety for spring ; 
the Butterhead will run into seed too quickly and should not be sown 
later than the middle of February in this latitude. 

Plant a full 'supply of Bush and Pole Beans. For Lima Beans, 
better to wait till towards the end of the month, as they rot easily 
when the ground is not warm enough, or too wet. 

Squash, Cucumbers, Melons and Okra can be planted. The remark 
in regard to Lima Beans holds good for Okra. Early varieties of Peas 
may still be planted. 

Tomatoes, Egg Plants and Peppers can be set out in the open 
ground, and seed sown for a later crop. Plant Sweet Corn. 

Potatoes can be planted ; ail depends upon the season. Some years 
they do as well as those planted during last month. 

Beans are hard to keep in this climate, and therefore very few are 
planted for shelling purposes. With a little care, however, they can be 
kept, but they ought not to be planted before the first of August, so 
that they may ripen when the weather gets cooler. When the season 
is favorable leave them out till dry ; gather the pods and expose them 
a few days to the sun. It is best to shell.them at once, and after they 
are shelled put them to air and sun again for a few days longer. Sacks 
are better to keep them in than barrels or boxes. The Red and White 
Kidney are generally the varieties used for drying. Beans raised in 
spring are hard to keep, and if intended for seed they should be put 
up in bottles, or in tin boxes, and a little camphor sprinkled between 
them. 

Sweet Potatoes should be planted. 

APRIL. 

Sow Bush, Pole and Lima Beans, Sweet Corn, Cucumber, Squash, 
Melons and Okra. 

Beets, Carrots, Swiss Chard, Radish, Lettuce, Mustard, Endive, 
Roquette, Cress, Parsley, Chervil and Celery for cutting. 

Sow Tomatoes, Egg Plant and Pepper for succession. It is rather 
late to sow Cabbage seed now, but if sown, the early varieties only can 
be successfully used. Kohlrabi can still be sown, but it is best to sow 
it thinly in drills a foot apart, and thin out to four inches in the rows. 

Towards the end of this month a sowing of the Late Italian Giant 
Cauliflower can be made. It is very large, and takes from eight to nine 
months before it matures, so has to be sown early. It is always best to 
make a couple of sowings, so that in case one should fail the other 
may be used. This variety is hardier than the French and German 
kinds. A good plan is to sow the seeds in boxes, elevated two feet or more 
above the ground, as it will keep the cabbage fly off. The plants 
should be overlooked daily, and all green cabbage worms, or other 
vermin removed. 



For the Southern States. 



G7 



Sweet Potato Slips, for early crop, can be planted out. Early Irish 
Potatoes will be fit to dig now, and the ground they arc taken out of 
may be planted with Corn, Beans, Squash, etc. 

Sow Pumpkins of both kinds ; the Field and the Cashaw. 

German Millet should be sown this month. The ground ought to 
be well plowed and harrowed. Three pecks of seed is the quantum to 
be sown per acre. It will be well to roll the ground after sowing, and 
the seed will require no other covering. If no roller is handy, some 
brush tied together ought to be passed over the ground sown. For hay, 
it should be cut when in flower. Every planter should give it a trial. 



Very few varieties of vegetables can be sown during this month. 
Many of the winter varieties will not do well if sown now. The grounds 
should now be occupied with growing crops. 

Where Potatoes and Onions are taken up, Corn, Melons, Cucum- 
bers, Squash and Pumpkin may be planted. 

Nothing of the Cabbage kind, except the Creole Cabbage seed, can 
be sown this month. It is supposed to stand the heat better than the 
other varieties, but it makes only loose heads, and runs up to seed as 
early as the end of November. 

Yellow and white summer Radish and Endive should be sown. 
Lettuce requires much water during hot weather, and if neglected, it 
will become hard and tasteless. The Perpignan is the best kind for 
summer use. Okra can still be sown. 

The first sowing of White Solid Celery is to be made this month # 
The seed require to be shaded, and if the weather is dry regularly 
watered. Late Italian Cauliflower should be sown. 

Cow Peas can be planted between the corn, or the crowdersin rows ; 
the latter are the best to be used green. If they are sown for fertilizing 
purposes, they are sown one bushel per acre, and plowed under when 
the ground is well covered ; or sometimes they are left till fall when 
they commence to decay, and then plowed down. 

Sweet Potato Slips can be set out, taking advantage of an occasional 
rain ; if it does not rain they have to be watered. The tops of Shallots 
will commence to get dry ; this indicates that they are fit to take up. 
Pull them up and expose to the sun for a few days and then store them 
away in a dry airy place, taking care not to lay them too thick, as they 
are liable to heat. Lima and Pole Beans can be planted ; the Southern 
Prolific is the best variety for late planting. 



E. 

This month is similar to the last, that is, not a great deal can be 
sown. The growing crops will require attention as weeds grow fast. 
Plant Corn for the last supply of roasting ears. A few Water and Musk 
Melons may be planted. Cucumbers, Squash and Pumpkin planted 
this month generally do very well, but the first requires an abundance 
of water if the weather is dry. 

Southern Prolific Pole Beans may be planted during this month. 
Continue to set out Sweet Potato Vines. 



68 Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Sow Yellow and White Summer Radish, sow Endive for salad ; this 
is raised more easily than the Lettuce. 

Lettuce can be sown, but it requires more care than most people are 
willing to bestow. Soak the seeds for half an hour in water, take 
them out and put them in a piece of cloth and place in a cool spot, 
under the cistern or if convenient in an ice-box. Keep the cloth moist 
and in two or three days the seeds will sprout. Then sow them ; best 
to do so in the evening and give a watering. 

If the seed is sown without being sprouted, ants will be likely to 
carry it away before it can germinate, and the seedsman be blamed for 
selling seed that did not grow. This sprouting has to be done from 
May to September, depending upon the weather. Should the weather 
be moist and cool in the fall it can be dispensed with. Some sow late 
Cabbage for winter crop in this month, saying that the plants are easier 
raised during this than the two following months. I consider this 
month too soon ; plants will become too hard and long legged before 
they can be planted out. 

This is the last month to sow the Late Italian Cauliflower ; towards 
the end the Early Italian Giant Cauliflower can be sown. Some culti- 
vators transplant them, when large enough, at once into the open 
ground ; others plant them first into flower pots and transplant them 
into the ground later. If transplanted at this time, they will require to 
be shaded for a few days, till they commence to grow. 

Sow Tomatoes for late crop during the latter part of this month. 

JULY. 

Plant Pole Beans ; also Bush Beans towards the end of the month. 
Sow Tomatoes in the early part for the last crop. Some Corn for roast- 
ing ears may still be planted. Cucumbers can be planted for pickling. 
Early Giant Cauliflower can be sown. Sow Endive, Lettuce, Yellow 
and White Summer Radish. Where the ground is new some Turnips 
and Ruta Bagas can be sown. Cabbage should be commenced with 
after the fifteenth of this month ; Superior Flat Dutch, Improved Drum- 
head, St. Denis or Bonneuil and Brunswick are the leading kinds. It 
is hard to say which is the best time to sow ; as our seasons differ so much, 
some seasons we get frost early, other seasons not before January. 
Cabbage is most easily hurt by frost when it is half grown, when the 
plants are small, or when they are headed up, frost does not hurt 
much. It is always good to make two or three sowings ; as a general 
thing plants raised from July and August sown seed give the most 
•satisfaction; they are almost certain to head. September, in my 
experience is the most ticklish month ; as the seed sown in that month, 
is generally onh* half grown when we have some frosts, and therefore 
more liable to be hurt. But there are exceptions ; four years ago the 
seed sown in September turned out best. Seed sown at the end of 
October and during November generally give good results, but if planted 
for market, will not bring as much as Cabbage sown in July and August, 
Brunswick is the earliest of the large growing kinds, it should be sown 
in July and August, so that it may be headed up when the cold comes, 
as it is more tender than the Flat Dutch and Drumhead. The same 



For the Southern States. 



69 



may be said in regard to the St. Denis. All Cabbages require strong 
good soil, but these two varieties particularly. Brunswick makes also 
a very good spring cabbage when sown end of October. The standard 
varieties, the Superior Flat Dutch and Improved Drumhead, should be 
sown end of this month and during next. It is better to sow plenty of 
seeds, than to be short of plants. I would prefer one hundred plants 
raised in July and August to four times that amount raised in Septem- 
ber. It is very hard to protect the young plants from the ravages of 
the fly. Strong tobacco water is as good as anything else for this purpose, 
or tobacco stems cut fine and scattered over the ground will keep them 
off to some extent. As the plants have to be watered, the smell of the 
tobacco will drive the flies away. 

AUGUST. 

This is a very active month for gardening in the South. Plant Bush 
Beans, Extra Early and Washington Peas. Sow late Cabbages and 
Drumhead Savoy, also Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts and Kale. The Early 
Italian Giant Cauliflower may still be sown, but now is the proper 
time to sow the Half Early Paris, Asiatic and other early varieties. 

Sow Parsley, Roquette, Chervil, Lettuce, Endive and Sorrel ; but in 
case of dry weather these seeds will have to be watered freely. 

Continue to sow Yellow Summer Turnip Radishes, and commence 
to sow red varieties, such as Scarlet Turnip, Half Long French, and 
Long Scarlet. 

Towards the end of the month the Black Spanish Radish can be 
sown ; also, Swiss Chard. 

Sow Mustard and Cress ; the former will generally do well. All 
kinds of Turnips and Ruta Bagas should be sown ; also, Kohlrabi. 

The seeds of all kinds of Beets should be put in the ground. 

Towards the end of the month Carrots can be sown ; but the sow- 
ing of all vegetables at this time of the year depends much upon the 
season. If we should have hot and dry weather it is useless to do 
much, as seed can not come up without being watered. White Solid 
Celery should be sown for a succession, and the Dwarf kinds for spring 

use. 

Shallots can be set out during this month ; also Onion Sets, espe- 
cially if they are raised from Creole seed. The early part of the month 
is the proper time to plant Red and White Kidney Beans for shelling 
and drying, for winter use. 

Early Rose and other varieties of Potatoes, should be planted 
early this month for a winter crop, and the latest of Tomato plants 
should be set out, if not done last month. If Celery plants are set out 
during this month, they require to be shaded.! 

SEPTEMBER. 

Most of the seeds recommended for last month can be sown this, 
and some more added. 

In the early part Bush Beans can be planted, as they will bear before 
frost comes. Plant Extra Early and early varieties of peas. Sow Radishes 
of all kinds, Carrot, Beets, Parsnip, Salsify, Roquette, Chervil, Parsley, 
Sorrel, Cress, Lettuce, Ed dive, Leek, Turnips, Kohlrabi, Broccoli, 
Early Cauliflower, Kale, Celery, Corn Salad and Mustard. 



70 KichaPvD Frotschee's Almanac and Garden Manual 



After the fifteenth of this month Creole Onion seed can be sown. 
This is an important crop, and should not be neglected. If it is very 
dry, cover the bed, after the seed has been sown, with green moss ; it 
will keep the ground moist, and the seed will come up more regularly. 
The moss has to be taken off as soon as the young plants make their 
appearance. 

Celery plants may be set out in ditches prepared for that purpose. 
Cauliflower and Cabbage plants can be transplanted if the weather is 
favorable. , 

If the weather is not too hot and dry, Spinach should be sown ; but 
it is useless to do so if the weather is not suitable. 

Cabbage can be sown, but it is much better to sow in August and 
transplant during this month. 

Set out Shallots. Sorrel should be divided and replanted. 

Sow Turnip-rooted Celery. 

OCTOBER. 

Artichokes should be dressed, the suckers or sprouts taken off, and 
new plantings made. 

Onion seed can still be sown ; but it is better to get the seed into the 
ground as soon as possible, so the plants get to be some size before the 
cold weather comes. 

Towards the end of the month, Black Eye Marrowfat Peas can be 
planted; also, English or Windsor Beans. 

Sow Cabbage, Cauliflower, Broccoli, Brussel Sprouts, Kale, Spinach, 
Mustard, Swiss Chard, Carrots, Beets, Salsify, Leek, Corn Salad, 
Parsley, Boquette, Chervil, Kohlrabi, Badish, Lettuce, Endive and 
Parsnip. Shallots from the first planting can be divided, and set out 
again. Salsify does very finely here, but is generally sown too late ; this 
is the proper month to sow the seed. The ground should be mellow 
and have been manured last spring. It should be spaded up very deeply ; 
as the size and smoothness of the roots depend upon the preparation of 
the soil. 

Water the Celery with soap suds, and if the season has been favor- 
able, by the end of this month some may be earthed up. 

Sow Bye, Barley and Bed Oats, Orchard Grass, Bed and White Clover, 
and Alfalfa Clover. Strawberry plants should be transplanted ; they 
can not be left in the same spot for three or four years, as is done North. 
T he Wilsons Albany and Longworth's Prolific are the favorite varieties 
for the market. 

The Wilson's Albany do not make many runners here, but tjiey 
form a stool something like the plants of violets, and these stools have 
to be taken up and divided. 

NOVEMBER. 

Continue to sow Spinach, Corn Salad, Badish, Lettuce, Mustard, 
Boquette, Parsley, Chervil, Carrots, Salsify, Parsnip, Cress and Endive, 
also Turnips and Cabbage. Superior Flat Dutch and Improved Drum- 
head, sown in this month, make fine cabbage in the spring. 

Artichoke should be dressed if not already done last month. 



For the Southern States. 



71 



Sow Black Eye and other late varieties of Peas, frost does not hurt 
them as long as they are small, and during this time of the year, they 
will grow but very slowly. English Beans can be planted, frost does 
not hurt them, and if not planted soon they will not bear much. 

Manure for hot beds should be looked after, and ought not to be 
over one month old. It should be thrown together in a heap, and when 
heated forked over again so the long and short manure will be well 
mixed. The first vegetables generally sown in the hot beds' are Cucum- 
bers ; it is best to start them in two or three inch pots, and when they 
have two rough leaves, transplant them to their place ; two good plants 
are sufficient under every sash. 



DECEMBER. 

Not a great deal is planted during this month, as the ground is. 
generally occupied by growing crops. 

Plant Peas for a general crop ; some potatoes may be risked, but it 
is uncertain whether they will succeed or not. 

Sow Spinach, Boquette, Kadish, Carrots, Lettuce, Endive and 
Cabbage. 

Early varieties of Cauliflower can be sown in a frame or sheltered 
situation, to be transplanted in February into the open ground. Early 
Cabbages, such as York, Oxheart and Winningstadt may be sown. 

To those who wish to force Tomatoes, I will say that this is the 
month to sow them. The best kind for that purpose is the Extra Early 
Dwarf Red ; it is really a great acquisition ; it is very dwarfish, very 
productive, of good size and bears the fruit in clusters. 



-< <• i&>-&~*-- 



72 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



PLANTERS' AND GARDENERS' PRICE LIST. 

Cost of Mailing Seeds. Orders for ounces and ten cent papers are 
mailed free of postage. Except Beans, Peas and Corn ; if any of these 
in large papers are ordered by mail, postage must be paid by the pur- 
chaser, or I will send small sized papers and prepay the postage. On 
large sized papers of some varieties of Beans and Peas, the postage will 
cost more than the papers of same. On orders by the pound and quart 
an advance of siiteen cents per pound and thirty cents per quart, must 
be added to quotations for postage. 

Artichoke. per oz. 

Large Globe - ^0 40 

Asparagus. 

Large Purple Top 10 

Beans, (Dwarf, Snap ob Bush. ) per quart 

Extra Early Six Weeks or Newington Wonder $0 25 

Early Red Speckled Valentine 25 

Early Mohawk Six Weeks 25 

Early Yellow Six Weeks 25 

Dwarf German Wax, (Stringless) 30 

White Kidney 20 

Red Speckled French 20 

Early China Red Eye 25 

Red Kidney 20 

Beans? (Pole oe Running.) 

Large Lima 50 

Carolina or Sewee , . 50 

Horticultural or Wren's Egg ......... 40 

Dutch Case Knife 40 

German Wax, (Stringless) 50 

Southern Prolific 50 

Beans, English. 

Broad Windsor , 



30 

Beet. per oz. 

Extra Early or Bassano SO 10 

Simon's Early Red Turnip 10 

Early Blood Turnip 10 

Long Blood 10 

Half Long Blood 10 

Egyptian Red Turnip 15 

Long Red Mangel Wurtzel 10 

10 

15 



White French or Sugar 



Silver or Swiss Chard 

Borecole or Curled Kale. 

Dwarf German Greens 

Broccoli. 

Purple Cape 

Brussels Sprouts 



15 

30 
30 



per 


lb 


$4 00 


1 00 


>erg 


al. 


$1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


20 





75 





80 


1 


00 





75 


2 


00 


2 


00 


1 


50 


1 


50 


2 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


per 


R> 


$ 1 


00 





75 





75 





75 


1 


00 


1 


00 





50 





50 


1 


50 



1 00 

4 00 

4 00 



For the Southern States. 73 



Cabbage. per oz. per lb 

Early York $0 25 $2 50 

Early Large York 25 2 50 

Early Sugar Loaf 25 3 00 

Early Large Oxheart 25 3 00 

Early Winningstadt 25 3 00 

Jersey Wakefield 50 5 00 

Early Flat Dutch 25 3 00 

Large Flat Brunswick 30 4 00 

Fotler's Improved Brunswick 30 4 00 

Improved Large Late Drumhead 30 4 00 

Superior Large Late Flat Dutch .... 30 4 00 

Bed Dutch, (for pickling) 30 4 00 

Green Globe Savoy 25 3 00 

Early Dwarf Savoy 25 3 00 

Drumhead Savoy 30 4 00 

St. Denis or Chou Bonneuil . . 30 4 00 

Cauliflower. 

Extra Early Paris 1 00 12 00 

Half Early Paris . 1 00 12 00 

Large Asiatic 1 00 12 00 

Early Erfurt 1 00 15 00 

LeNormand's short stemmed 1 00 15 00 

Early Italian Giant 150 20 00 

Late Italian Giant 1 50 20 00 

Carrot. 

Early Scarlet Horn . , , t 10 1 20 

Half Long Scarlet French 10 1 20 

Half Long Luc 10 1 20 

Improved Long Orange 10 1 20 

Long Bed without core ". 10 1 20 

Celery. 

Large White Solid 30 4 00 

Imcomparable Dwarf White 30 4 00 

Sandringham's Dwarf White 30 4 00 

Large Bibbed Dwarf (new) 30 4 00 

Turnip Booted 30 4 00 

Cutting 15 2 00 

Chervil. 

Green Curled 20 2 50 

Collarets 20 2 50 

Corn Salad 15 2 00 

Corn. per quart. per gal. 

Extra Early Dwarf Sugar $0 25 $0 80 

Adams Extra Early 20 , 60 

y Early Sugar or Sweet 20 75 

/ Stowel's Evergreen Sugar 20 75 

Golden Dent Gourd Seed 20 60 

Early Yellow Canada 15 . 60 

Large White Flint 15 60 



74 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Cress. per oz. 

Curled or Pepper Grass SO 10 

Broadleaved 20 

Cucumber. 

Improved Early White Spine 15 

7 /£ Early Frame 15 

Long Green Turkey 20 

/ Early Cluster 15 

Gherkin or Burr, (for pickling) 25 

Eggplant. 

Large Purple or New Orleans Market. 50 

Endive. 

Green Curled 20 

Extra Fine Curled 20 

v Broadleaved or Escarolle 20 

Kolil Babi. 

Early White Vienna 25 

Leek. 

Large. London Flag 25 

Large Carentan 30 

L.ettuce. 

Early Cabbage, or White Butter 25 

Improved Boyal Cabbage 30 

Brown Dutch 30 

Drumhead Cabbage 25 

White Paris Coss 30 

Large Curled India : . 30 

Perpignan 30 

Improved Large Passion 30 

Melon, Musk or Canteloupe. 

Netted Nutmeg 15 

Netted Citron t 15 

Pine Apple 15 

Early White Japan '. 15 

Persian or Cassaba 15 

New Orleans Market 20 

Melon, Water. 

Mountain Sweet 10 

Mountain Sprout 10 

Improved Gipsey 15 

Ice Cream, (White Seeded) 15 

Orange 20 

Battle Snake 20 

Mustard. 

White or Yellow Seeded 10 

Largeleaved , . 10 

Nasturtium. 

Tal> 25 

Dwarf 30 



pei 

$1 


1U 

00 


3 


00 


1 


25 


1 


25 


2 


00 


1 


50 


4 00 


6 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 



4 00 

3 00 

4 00 

3 00 

3 00 

4 00 

3 00 

4 00 
4 00 
"4 00 
4 00 

1 50 
1 50 
1 50 
1 50 

1 50 

2 00 

1 00 
1 25 
1 50 

1 50 

2 00 
2 00 

50 

1 00 



00 
00 



For the Southern States. 



75 



Okra. 

Tall Growing 

Dwarf 

Onion. 



Yellow Dutch or Strassburg . 
Large Red Wethersfield . . . 

White or Silver Skin 

Creole 



per oz. 
10 
10 



25 

25 
25 
25 



^y£? 



Shallots. 
Parsley. 

Plain leaved 10 

Double Curled '. 10 

Improved Garnishing # . . . . 15 

Parsnip. 

Hallow Crown or Sugar 10 

Peas. per quart 
Extra Early $ 30 



Tom Thumb 

Early Washington ... 

Laxton's Alpha 

Bishop's Dwarf Long Pod . 
Champion of England . . . 

McLean's Advancer 

McLean's Little Gem 



Laxton's Prolific Long Pod 



Eugenie 

Dwarf Blue Imperial . . . . 
Royal Dwarf Marrow . . . 
Black Eyed Marrowfat. . 
Large White Marrowfat. 

Dwarf Sugar 

Tall Sugar . . . , 

Field or Cow Peas 



30 
20 
40 
30 
30 
30 
40 
40 
30 
30 
25 
15 
20 
50 
50 



per lb. 
1 00 

1 00 

3 00 
3 00 
3 50 
3 00 



00 
25 
50 



1 20 

per gal. 

$1 00 

1 20 

75 



50 
20 
20 
20 
50 
50 
20 
20 
80 



60 
80 
2 00 
2 00 



Market Price. 



-* 



»5 



Pepper. per oz. perib 

Bell or Bull Nose $ 40 $4 00 

Sweet Spanish Monstrous 50 5 00 

Long Red Cayenne 40 4 00 

Red Cherry 40 4 00 



Potatoes. 



■73 



Early Rose 

Jackson White 

Breeze's Peerless 

Russets 

Extra Early Vermont. 
Snowflake 



o 
o 

*3 <3 






o a 
'JS o 



J £ a 



o 









$T> 



/c 



Potatoes. §weet, 

Yarn 7 % \ Prices vary according to market. 

Bermuda v Quotations will be given on appli- 

Sh.angfc.ai or Calif: rrrJv Bam \ cation. 

P limp kill. per quart 

Kentucky Field . ... S 25 






Large Cheese. $ 

shaw Crook-Xeck ........ ," .. , 



*■/ 



I tm u 



Radisli. 

Earlv Long Scarlet 

Early Scarlet Tnmip 

Yellow Summer Turnip. . . . 

Early Scarlet Olive shaped. 

White Summer Turnip .... 

Scarlet Half Long French . 

Black Spanish. Winter) . . 

Chinese Rose. Winter .... 

Roquette 

Salsify American) . . 



Spinach. 

Extra Large Leaved Savoy. 

Broadleaved Flanders 






§Q«ash. 

Early Bush or Patty Pan 

Long Green or Summer Crook-Neck 

London Vegetal le Marrow 

The Hubbard 

Boston Marrow , 



Tomato. 

Extra Early Dwarf Red, New 

Early Large Sm : ::h Bed 

Fe;ee Island 

Tiiden 

Trophy, Selected) 

Large Yellow 

Acme 



Tnmip. 

Early Bed or Purple Top. (strap-leaved] 

Early White Flat Dutch, (strap-leaved' . 

Large White Globe 

Pomerian Globe 

White Spring 

Yellow Aberdeen 

golden Ball 

Purple Top Buta Baga 

Improved Buta Baga 



fft 


per g? :;. 


25 


8 1 00 


)Z. 


1 er fb. 


10 


$ 75 


10 


1 00 


10 


80 


15 


1 00 


15 


1 20 


10 


80 


15 


1 20 


10 


80 


15 


1 20 


20 


2 00 


20 


3 00 


20 


2 00 


10 


: : " 


10 


50 


15 


1 00 


15 


1 50 


25 


a 


15 


1 25 


15 


1 50 


50 


6 00 


20 


3 00 


30 


4 ::< 


30 


4 00 


r : 


6 00 


30 


4 00 


50 


6 00 


10 


50 


10 


50 


10 


50 


10 


50 


10 


50 


10 


50 


15 


75 


10 


50 


15 


75 



For the Southern States. 



77 



^7 



Sweet and Medicinal Herbs. 

Anise 

Balm 

Basil 

Bene 

Borage 

Caraway 

Dill 

Fennel 

Lavender 

Majoram 

Pot Marigold 

Rosemary . . .- 

Rue 

Sage „ 

Summer Savory 

Thyme 

Wormwood 




10 

10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 



Grass audi Field Seeds. 

Bed Clover 

White Dutch Clover. ... 

Alsike Clover 

Alfalfa or French Lucerne . 
Kentucky Blue Grass .... . 

Rescue Grass 

Hungarian Grass 

German Millet 

Rye 

Barley 

Red or Rust Proof Oats . . . 

Sorghum 

Broom Corn 

Buckwheat 




_o 

'-C 

as 

.° 
03 

a 
o 

03 

a 
o 



o 

a 



Prices of larger quantities of seed will be given on application. 
Peas and Beans very low if ordered by the bushel. 



78 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



The following letter on "Alfalfa" or "Lucerne," has been written 
by E. M. Hudson, Esq., a gentleman who is a close observer, and has 
given the subject a great deal of attention, it will be found very instruc- 
tive. 

Villa Friedheim, 

Mobile County, Ala., September 7th, 1878. 
Mr. E. FEOTSCHEE, New Orleans, La. 
Dear Sir : 

Your letter of the 3rd inst. has just reached me, and I cheerfully 
comply with your request to give you the results of my experiments 
with Lucerne Or Alfalfa, and my opinion of it as a forage-plant for the 
South. 

I preface my statement with the observation that my experiments 
have been conducted on a naturally poor, piney-woods soil (which 
would be classed as a sandy soil), varying in depth from six inches to 
one foot. But I have a good red-clay sub-soil, which enables the soil 
to retain the fertilizers applied to it, thus rendering it susceptible of 
permanent enriching. 

Three years since, when my attention was first directed to Alfalfa 
I sought the advice of the Editor of the Journal of Progress, Erofessor 
Stelie, who informed me that, after attempting for several years to 
cultivate it, he had desisted. He stated that the plant, at Citronelle in 
this country, died out every summer, not being able to withstand the 
hot suns of our climate. Discouraged, but not dismayed, I determined 
to test the matter on a small scale at first. Having procured some 
seed in March 1876, 1 planted them on a border in my garden, and gave 
neither manure nor work that season. The early summer here that 
year was very dry ; there was no rain whatever from the 1st of June to 23rd 
July ; and from the 2nd of August to 15th November not a drop of rain 
fell on my place. Yet, during all this time, my Alfalfa remained fresh, 
bloomed, and was cut two or three times. On the 1st November I dug 
some of it to examine the habit of root-growth ; and to my astonish- 
ment I found it necessary to go 22 inches below the surface to reach any- 
thing like the end of the top roots. At once it was apparent that the 
plant was by its very habit of growth, adapted to hot and dry climates. 
It is indeed a "child of the sun." 

Encouraged by this experiment, in which I purposely refrained 
from giving the Alfalfa any care beyond cutting it occasionally, last 
year, I proceeded on a larger scale, planting both spring and fall, as I 
have done again this year to ascertain the best season for putting in the 
seed. My experience teaches that there is no preference to be given to 
spring sowings over those of autumn, provided only, there be enough 
moisture in the soil to make the seed germinate, which they do more 
quickly and more surely than the best turnips. Two winters have 
proved to me that the Alfalfa remains green throughout the winter in 
this latitude, 25 miles north of Mobile and at an altitude of 400 feet 
above tide-water. Therefore I should prefer fall-sowings, which will 
give the first cutting from the 1st March to 1st April following. This 
season niy finst catting was made on the first of April ; and I have cut 
it since regularly every four or six weeks, according to the weather, 
to cure for hay. Meanwhile a portion has been cut almost daily for 



For the Southern States. 



79 



feeding green, or soiling. Used in the latter way, (for under no circum- 
stances must it ever be pa^ured) I am able to give my stock fresh, green 
food fully four weeks before the native, wild grasses commence to put 
out. I deem it best to cut the day before, what is fed green, in order to 
let it become thoroughly wilted before using. After a large number of 
experiments with horses, mules, cattle and swine, I can aver that in no 
instance from March to November, have I found a case when any of 
these animals would not give the preference to Alfalfa over every kind 
of grass (also soiled) known in this region. And, while Alfalfa makes 
a sweet and nutritious hay eagerly eaten by all kinds of stock, it is as a 
forage plant for soiling, which is available for at least nine months in 
the year, that I esteem it so highly. The hay is easily cured, if that 
which is cut in the forenoon is thrown into small cochs at noon, then 
spread out after the dew is off next morning, sunned for an hour, and 
at once hauled into the barn. By this method the leaves do not fall off, 
which is sure to be the case if the Alfalfa is exposed to a day or two of 
hot sunshine. 

It has been my habit to precede the Alfalfa with a clean crop, usually 
Rutabagas, after which I sow clay-peas to be turned in'about the last of 
July. About the middle of September or later I have the land 
ploughed, the turn plough being followed by a deep sub-soil plough 
or scooter. After this the land is fertilized and harrowed until it is 
thoroughly pulverized and all lumps broken up. The fertilizers 
employed by me are 500 lbs. fine bone-dust (phosphate of lime) and 
1000 lbs. cotton seed hull-ashes per acre. These ashes are very rich in 
potash and phosphates, containing nearly 45 per cent, of the phosphate 
of potash and nearly 40 per cent, of the phosphate of lime— the two 
articles best adapted to the wants of this plant. I sow all of my Alfalfa 
with the Mathew's Seed Drill, in rows 10 inches apart. Broad-cast 
would be preferable, if the land were perfectly free from grass and 
weeds ; but, as it takes several years of clean culture to put the land 
in this condition, sowing in drills is practically the best. No seed sower 
known to me can be compared with the Mathew's Seed Drill. It's 
work is evenly and regularly done, and with a rapidity that is astonish- 
ing ; for it opens the drill to any desired depth, drops the seed, covers 
and rolls them, and marks the line for the next drill at one operation, 
It is simple and durable in its structure, and is the greatest labor-saving 
machine of its kind ever devised for hand-work. 

When my Alfalfa is about 3 inches high I work it with the Mathew's 
Hand Cultivator. First the front tooth of the Cultivator is taken out, 
by which means the row is straddled and all the grass cut out close to 
the plant; then, the front tooth being replaced, the cultivator is passed 
between the rows, completely cleaning the middles of all foul growth. 
As often as required to keep down grass, until the Alfalfa is large 
enough to cut, the Mathew's Hand Cultivator is passed between the 
rows. 

Alfalfa requires three years to reach perfection, but even the first 
year the yield is larger than that of most forage plants, and after the 
second it is enormous. The land must, however, be made rich at 
first ; a top dressing every three years is all that will thereafter be 
required. The seed must be very lightly covered and should be rolled, 
or brushed in, if not sowed with a Mathew's Seed Sower. 



80 Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Whenever the plant is in bloom it must be cut ; for, if the seed be 
left to mature, the stems become hard and woody. Also, whenever 
it turns yellow, no matter at what age, it must be cut or mowed ; for the 
yellow color shows the presence of some disease, or the work of some 
small insect, both of which seem to be remedied by mowing promptly. 
My experience leads me to the conclusion that fully five tons of cured 
hay per acre may be counted on if proper attention be given to deep 
ploughing, subsoiling, fertilizing and cleanliness of the soil. These 
things are indispensable, and without them no one need attempt to 
cultivate Alfalfa. 

In conclusion I will remark that I have tried the Lucerne seed, 
imported by you from France, side by side with the Alfalfa seed sent 
me by Trumbull & Co., of San Francisco, and I cannot seethe slightest 
difference in appearance, character, quality or quantity of yield, or 
hardiness. They are identical ; both have germinated equally well, 
that is to say, perfectly. 

In closing I cannot do better than refer you to the little treatise of 
Mr. C. W. Howard, entitled : "A manual of the cultivation of the grasses 
and forage plants at the South." Mr. Howard among the very first to 
cultivate Lucerne in the South, gives it the preference over all other 
forage plants whatever. My experience confirms all that Mr. Howard 
claims for it. Certainly a plant that lasts a generation is worthy of the 
bestowal of some time, patience and money to realize what a treasure 
they can secure for themselves. I confidently believe that in ten years 
from this date the Alfalfa will be generally cultivated throughout the 
entire South. 

I am, respectfully yours, 

E. M. HUDSON, 

Counsellor at law, 

20 Carondelet Street, 

New Orleans. 



HINTS ON ORANGE CULTURE. 



Orange culture having received so much attention these last few 
years, a few words on the subject will I hope be beneficial to many who 
contemplate planting an orange grove. 

The first and most important point is to select the best situation for 
an orchard, which should be rolling land or have surface drainage 
with Northern protection, either water or wood. I much prefer the 
latter. These conditions obtained, the land should be ploughed into 
ridges, so that the trees may be planted sufficiently high from the evil 
influence of wet subsoil. When this is done the way is to get trees from 
a reliable nursery-man or to raise from seeds, the latter is the cheapest 
way. I earnestly recommend sour orange seeds, and when two years 
old have them either grafted or budded with choice varieties, by this 
process you will have trees much hardier, entirely free from collar 
disease and in bearing in less than half the time it takes sweet seedlings 
to come into bearing ; also you will have such kinds as you may choose 
to select, thus giving a treble advantage over the planting of sweet 
seedlings. A bed prepared in the same way as for cabbage seeds will 
best answer the purpose, plant seeds \ inch deep in the early spring, 
and best to take the seeds out of the orange just before planting, press 
the earth well, water once or twice and they will be up in a few days. 
They can be transplanted in early summer or spring and will be fit for 
budding next year. When planting in rows plant one foot apart and 
have 3 feet between the rows, this will give plenty room for cultivation. 
After one or two years you may plant in the orchard, at such distance 
apart as the nature of soil and taste of the owner may determine. 
Grafted trees require much less space than seedlings as they commence 
bearing fruit in two or three years after grafting, growing more fruit 
and less wood than seedlings. Great care should be taken not to plant 
too deep, as more injury arises from this than any other cause. It is 
best to have the service of a man who understands the business than to 
run the risk of having the work badly done. If it is necessary to trans- 
plant large trees, care must be taken to take up a good ball of earth 
with the roots ; the spade ought to be sharp so the roots may be cut 
readily, and if any of them are too strong, should be sawed off; the 
same in regard to the tape root. The best time to transplant orange 
trees, and especially large trees, is in the spring of the year just when 
the sap commences to raise. Always select a warm day ; never when 
there is a sharp north-wind blowing. Small plants, seedlings, can be 
transplanted almost anytime during summer and fall, and to advantage 
in August when the second sap sets in. By transplanting large trees 
never put them lower as they have stood before, tramp the ground 
around the roots hard so the air cannot penetrate, and mulch the trees 
for the first season, and if the season should be dry, give copious 
watering. 



82 Richard Feotscheb's Almanac and Garden Manual 



FLOWER SEEDS. 



The following list of Flower seeds is not very large, but it contains all 
which is desirable and which will do well in the Southern climate. I im- 
port them from one of the most celebrated growers in Prussia, and they 
are of the best quality. There are very few or no Flower seeds raised in 
this country, and Northern houses, which publish large lists and cata- 
logues, get themirom just the same sources as myself; but they, on an 
average, sell much higher than I do. Some varieties which are biennial 
in Europe or North, flower here the first season ; in fact if they do not, 
they generally do not flower at all, as they usually are destroyed by 
the continued long heat of summer. Some kinds grow quicker here and 
come to greater perfection than in a more Northern latitude. 

Flower seeds require a little more care in sowing than vegetable 
seeds The ground should be well pulverized and light enough not to 
bake after a rain. Some of the more delicate and finer varieties are better 
sown in boxes or seed pans, where they can be better handled and protec- 
ted from hard rains, or cold weather ; the other kinds do not transplant 
well and are better sown at once where they are to remain, or a few 
seeds may be sown in small pots to facilitate transplanting into the 
garden without disturbing the plants, when large enough. Some have 
very fine seeds which the mere pressing with the hand or spade to the 
soil will cover ; others may be covered one fourth of an inch, according 
to their size. Watering should be done carefully, and if not done 
with the syringe, a watering-pot where the holes of the sprout are very 
fine should be used. 

By setting the plants out, or sowing the seeds in the border, con- 
sideration should be taken of the height, so that the taller varieties may 
be in the middle and the dwarf kinds on the edge of the bed. 

The seeds are put up at ten cents a package, one dollar per dozen, 
except a few rare or costly kinds, where the price is noted. All Flower 
seeds in packages are mailed free of postage to the purchaser. Where 
there is more than one color I generally import them mixed, as I find 
that most of my customers do not wish to purchase six packages or 
more of one variety, in order to get all the colors. One package of 
Asters, Zinnia, Phlox. Chinese Pink, German Stocks. Petunia, Portu- 
laca and others, will always contain an equal mixture of the best 
colors. 

Altliea Rosea. Hollyhock. This flower has been much improved 
of late years, and is very easily cultivated. Can be sown from October 
till April. Very hardy ; from four to six feet high. 

Alyssuin liiaiitiiiisuii. Sweet Allyssum. Very free flowering 
plants about six inches high, with white flowers, very fragrant. Sow 
from October till April. 

Amirhiimm uiaju*. Snapdragon. Choice mixed. Showy plant 
of various colors. About two feet high. Should be sown early, if per- 
fect flowers are desired. Sow from October till March. 

Aster. Queen Margaret. German Quilled. Perfect double quilled 
flowers, of all shades, from white to dark purple and crimson. One and 
a half feet high. 



For the Southern States. 



83 




**££&*%** 2? 




German Quilled Aster. Trufaut's Paeony Flowered Aster. 

Aster. Trufaut's Paeony Flowered Perfection. Large double 
paeony shaped flowers, of fine mixed colors ; one of the best varieties. 
Two feet high ; sow from December till March. Asters should be sown 
in a box or in pots and kept in a green house, or near a window ; when 
large enough transplant into the border. Take a shovel of compost 
and mix with the ground before planting. Put three to four plants 
together, and they will show better. They can be cultivated in pots. 





Adonis autumnalis. 



Amaranthus caudatus. 



Adonis autumnalis. Flos Adonis or Pheasants Eye. Showy 
crimson flower, of long duration. Sow from November till April. One 
foot high. 

Amaranthus caudatus. Love Lies Bleeding. Long red race- 
mens with blood red flowers. Very graceful ; three feet high. 

Amaranthus tricolor. Three colored Amaranth. Very showy ; 
cultivated on account of its leaves, which are green yellow and red. 
Two to three feet high. 

Amaranthus bicolor. Two colored Amaranth, Crimson and 
green varigated foliage ; good for edging. Two feet high. 

Amaranthus atropurpureus. Crimson Amaranth. Long 
drooping spikes of purple flowers. Four feet high. 



84 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 





Amaranthus Salicifolius, Fountain Plant. 



Double Daisy. 



Amaranthus Salicifolius. Fountain Plant. Rich colored 
foliage, very -graceful. Five to six feet high. Sow from February till 
June. 




Aquilegia or Columbine. 



Balsamina Camelia Flowered. 



Aquilegia. Columbine. A showy and beautiful flower of differ- 
ent colors. Two feet high ; sow from October till March. Should be 
sown early if flowers are wished ; if sown late will not bloom till next 
season. 



For the Southern States. 



85 



Balsamina liortensis. Lady Slipper. A well known flower of 
easy culture. Requires good ground to produce double flowers. 

15 ;i Isamina. Camelia flowered. Very double and beautiful colors. 

Balsa in in a canielia flora alba. Pure white flowers, used 
for bouquets. About two feet high. Sow from February till August. 

Bellas Perennis. Daisy. Finest double mixed varieties. Four 
inches high ; from October till January. 





Cacalia coccinea, Dwarf Cock's-comb. 

Cacalia coccinea, Scarlet Tassel Flower. A profuse flowering 
plant, with tassel shaped flowers in clusters. One and a half feet. Sow 
from February till May. 

Calendula officinalis. Pot Marigold. A plant which, properly 
speaking, belongs to the aromatic herbs, but sometimes cultivated for 
the flowers, which vary in different shades of yellow. One and a half 
feet. From January till April. 

Celocia cristata. Dwarf Cock's-comb. Well known class of 
flowers which are very ornamental, producing large heads of crimson 
and yellow flowers. One to two feet high. Sow from February till 
August. 

Cherianthus Cheri. Wallflower. This flower is highly esteemed 
in some parts of Europe, but does not grow very perfectly here, and 
seldom produces the large spikes of double flowers, which are very 
fragrant. Two feet high. November till March. 

Campanula speculum. Bellflower or Venus' looking-glass. 
Free flowering plants of different colors, from white to dark blue. 
One foot high. Sow from December till March. 

Centaurea cyanus. Bottle Pink. A hardy annual of easy 
culture, of various colors. Two feet high. 

Centaurea suavolens. Yellow, Sweet Sultan. December to 
April. 

Cineraria hybrida. A beautiful green-house plant. Seed should 

be sown in October or November, and they will flower in spring, per 

package 25 cents. 

Dianthus Barbatus. Sweet William. A well known plant 

which has been much improved of late years. Their beautiful colors 
make them very showy. Should be sown early, otherwise they will 
not flower the first spring. One and a half feet high. October till 
April. 



86 



Richard Feotscher's Almanac and Garden Manua] 





Dianthus barbatus. Dianthus chinensis double. 

Diantlius Chinensis. Chinese Pink. A beautiful class of annuals 
of various colors, which flower very profusely in early spring and 
summer. One foot high. From October till April. 

Dianthus Heddewiggii. Japan Pink. This is the most showy 
of any of the annual pinks. The flowers are very large and of brilliant 

colors. One foot high. Sow from October till 
April. 

Dianthus plumaris. Border Pink. A 
fragrant pink used for edging. The flowers are 
fringed generally pink or white with dark eye. 
Does not flower the first year; two feet high. 
Sow from January till April. 

Dianthus caryophyllus. Carnation 
Pink. This is a well known and highly esteemed 
class of flowers. They are double, of different 
colors, and very fragrant. Can be sown either 
in fall or spring. Should be shaded during 
midsummer and protected from hard rains. 
Dianthus caryophyllus. Three to four feet high. November till April. 






Dianthus Picotee. 



Early Dwarf double Carnation Pink. 



For the Southern States. 



87 



Dianthus picotee. Finest hybrids. Stage flowers saved from 
a collection of over 500 named varieties, per package 50 cents. 

Dianthus pumila. Early dwarf flowering Carnation Pink. If 
sown early this variety will flower the first season. They are quite 
dwarfish and flower very profusely. November till April. 

Delphinium Imperial fl. pi. Imperial Flowering Larkspur. 
Very handsome variety of symmetrical (form. Mixed colors ; bright 
red, dark blue and red striped. One and a half feet high. 

Delphinium ajacis. Eocket 
Larkspur. Mixed colors ; very showy. 
Two and a half feet. 

Delphinium Chinensis. Dwarf 
China Larkspur. Mixed colors ; very 
pretty. One foot high. November till 
April. 

Note.— None of the above three 
varieties transplant well, and are better 
sown at once where they are intended 
to remain. 

Dahlia. Large Flowering Dahlia. 
Seed sown in the spring will flower by 
June. Very pretty colors are obtained 
from seed ; the semi-double or single Delphinium Chinensis. 

ones can be pulled up as soon as they bloom. But those seeds which 
are saved from fine double varieties, will produce a good percentage of 
double flowers. February till June. 

Eschscholtzia California. California Poppy. A very free 
flowering plant, good for masses. Does not transplant well. One foot 




high. 



December till April. 





Gaillardia bicolor. 



Purple Globe Amaranth. 



Gaillardia bicolor. Two colored Gaillardia. Very showy 
plants, which continue to flower for a longtime. Flowers red bordered 
with orange yellow. One and a half feet high. January till April. 

Gillia. Mixed Gillia. Dwarf plants, which flower freely of various 
colors. One foot. December till April. • 



88 



Richard Feotschee's Almanac and Gaeden Manual 



Gompliiena alba and purpurea. White and Crimson 
Batchelor Button or Globe Amaranth. Well known variety of flowers ; 
very early and free flowering, continue to flower for a long time. Two 
feet high. From February till August. 




Geranium Zonale. 

Geraniiim Zonale. Zonale Geranium. Seed saved from large 
flowering varieties of different colors ; should be sown in seed pans, and 
when large enough transplanted into pots, where they can be left, or 
transplanted in spring into the open ground. 

Geranium pelargonium. Large flowering Pelargonium. 
Spotted varieties, 25 cents per package. 

Geranium oderatissima. Applescented Geranium. Culti- 
vated on account of its fragrant leaves, 25 cents per package. Both of 
these kinds are pot plants, and require shade during hot weather. 
Should be sown during fall and winter. 

GypsophiSa panieulata. Gypsophila. A graceful plant with 
white flowers, which can be used for bouquets. One foot high ; from 
December till April. 

Helichrysum inonstrosum album. White Everlasting 
Flower. Very showy double flowers. One and a half feet high. 

Helichrysum monstrosum rubrum. Eed EverlastingFlower. 



For the Southern States. 



89 



very ornamental. One and a half feet high. December till April. 
Does not transplant well. 

Helianttiusfl.pl. Double Flowering Sunflower. A well known 
plant, with showy yellow flowers. The double is often cultivated in 
the flower garden. The single varieties are cultivated mostly for the 
seed. They are said to be antimalarious. Four feet high. February 
till May. 

Iberis amara. White Candytuft. A well known plant raised a 
good deal by florists for bouquets. Can be sown at different times to 
have a succession of flowers. One foot high. 

Iberis nmbelata rosea. Purple Candytuft. One foot. October 
till April. 

Liuuiii grandifloruni rubrum. Scarlet Flax. A very pretty 
plant for masses or borders with bright scarlet flowers, darker in the 
centre. One foot. January till April. 




Lobelia erinus. 




Mathiola annua. 



Lobelia erinus. Lobelia. A very graceful plant, with white 
and blue flowers, well adapted for hanging baskets or border. Half 
foot. October till March. 

Lychnis chalcedonica. Lychnis. Nice plants with scarlet, 
white and rose flowers. Two feet. December till April. 

Lupinus. Lupinus. Plants with spikes of flowers of various 
colors. Should be sown soon. Does not transplant well. Two feet. 
December till March. 

Mathiola annua. Ten Weeks Stocks. This is one of the finest 
annuals in cultivation. Large flowers of all colors, from white to dark 
blue or crimson. Should be sown in pots or pans, and when large 
enough transplanted into rich soil. One and a quarter feet. October 
till March. 

Mesembryanthemum erystallinuni. Ice plant. Neat plant 
with icy Looking foliage. If is of spreading habit. Good for baskets or 
beds. One foot. February till April. 

Ma m ul us tigrinus. Monkey flower. Showy flowers of yellow 
and brown. Should be sown in a shad3 r place. Does not transplant 
well. Half foot. December till March. 



90 



Bichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 








Ice Plant. Double Matricaria. 

Matricaria capensis. Double Matricaria. White double 
flowers, resembling the Daisy, but smaller, are fine for bouquets ; 
blooms very nearly the whole summer. Two feet. December till March. 

Mimosa pudica. Sensitive Plant. A curious and interesting- 
plant which folds up its leaves when touched. One foot. February till 
June. 

Mirabilis jalapa. Marvel of Peru. A well known plant of easy 
culture ; producing flowers of various colors. It forms a root which 
can be preserved from one year to another. February till June. Three 
feet. * 

Myosotis palustris. Forget-me-not. A fine little plant with 
small blue starlike flowers. Should have a moist shady situation. 
Does not succeed so well here as in Europe, of which it is a native. Half 
foot high. December till March. 





&3m&r 



Blue Grove Love. Petunia hybrida. 

rVeinoplii la Insignis. Blue Grove Love. Plants of easy culture, 
very pretty and profuse bloomers. Bright blue, with white centre. 
One foot high. 

Nemophila maculata. Large white flowers spotted with 
violet. One foot high. December till April. 



-at 



For the Southern States. 



91 





Nigella damascena. 



(Enothera Lamarckiana. 



TVigella damascena. Love in a Mist. Plants of easy culture, 
with light blue flowers. Does not transplant well. One foot high. 
December till April. 

Nierembergia gracilis. Nierembergia. Nice plants with deli- 
cate foliage, and white flowers tinted with lilac. One foot high. Novem- 
ber till April. 

CEnotlicra Lamarckiana. Evening Primrose. Showy large 
yellow flowers. December till April. Two feet high. 

Papaver Soimiifcruiii. Double flowering Poppy. Of different 
colors ; very showy. 

Papaver rammcules flowered. Double fringed flowers very 
showy. Can not be transplanted. Two feet high. October till March. 

Petunia hybrida. Petunia. Splendid mixed hybrid varieties. 
A very decorative plant of various colors, well known to almost every 
lover of flowers. Plants are of spreading habit, about one foot high. 
January till May. 





Petunia Hybrida double. Portulacca. 

Petunia flora pleno. Large double flowering varieties. They 
are hybridized with the finest strains, and will give from 20 to 25 per 
cent, of double flowers. Very handsome, 25 cents per package. January 
till March. 



r 



92 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 




Phlox Drummondii grandiflora. 

Phlox Drummondii. 

Drummond's Phlox. One of 
the best and most popular 
annuals in cultivation. Their 
various colors, and length of 
flowering with easy culture, 
make them favorites with 
every one. All fine colors 
mixed. One foot high. De- 
cember till April. 

Phlox Drummondii 
grandiflora. This is an 
improvement on the above ; 
flowers are larger with white 
centre, different colors. Very 
beautiful. One foot high. 
December till April. 

Portulacca. A small 
plant of great beauty, and 
of the easiest culture. Does 
best in a well exposed situa- 
tion, where it has plenty of 




Double Portulacca. 



For the Southern States. 



93 



sun. The flowers are of various colors, from white to bright scarlet and 
crimson. The plant is good for edging vases or pots. Or where large 
plants are kept in tubs, the surface can be filled with this neat little 
genus of plants. Half foot high. February till August. 

PortiiIaccagraiidiflora.fl.pl. Double Portulacca. The same 
variety of colors with semi-double and double flowers. Half foot high. 
February till August. 





Primula veris. Scabiosa nana. 

Primula veris. Polyanthus. An herbaceous plant of various 
colors, highly esteemed in Europe. Half foot high. December till 
April. 

Primula chinensis. Chinese Primrose. A green-house plant, 
which flowers profusely and continues to bloom for a longtime, should 
be sown early to insure the plant flowering well. Different colors mixed, 
per package 25 cts. One and a half feet high. October till February. 

Reseda oderata. Sweet Mignonette. A fragrant plant and a 
favorite with everybody. One foot high. 1 

Reseda grandiflora. Similar to the above plant and flower, 
spikes larger. Fifteen inches. December till April. 

Scabiosa nana. Dwarf Mourning Bride. Plants of double 
flowers of various colors. One foot high. December till April. 





Tag6tesErecta. 



Tagetes Patula. 



94 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac ^nd Garden Manual 



Saponaria ealabrica. Soapwort. A very free flowering annual, 
of easy culture, resembling somewhat in leaves the Sweet William. 
One and a half feet high. December till April. 

Salvia coccinea splendens. Scarlet Salvia or Red Flowering 
Sage. A pot or green-house plant, but which can be grown as an 
annual, as it flowers freely from seed the first year. Two to three feet 
high. February till April. 

Silene Armeria. Lobels Catchfly. A free blooming plant of 
easy culture ; flowers almost anywhere. Red and white. One and a 
half feet high. 

Tagetes erecta* African or Tall-growing Marigold. Very 
showy annuals for borders, with bright yellow flowers growing upright. 
One and a half feet high. 

Tagetes patiila. French or Dwarf Marigold. A very compact 
dwarf growing variety, covered with yellow and brown flowers. One 
and a half feet high. January till April. 




Hybridized Verbena. 



Striped Italian Verbena, 



Verbena hybrida. Hybridized Verbena. A well known and 
favorite flower for borders. Their long flowering and great diversity 
of color make them valuable for every garden, however small. All 
colors mixed. One and a half feet high. January till April. 

Verbena Striped Italian* These are beautiful striped kinds 
of all colors with large eyes. 

Verbena Niveni. White Verbena. Pure white Verbena of 
more or less fragrance. One and a half feet high. January till April. 



For the Southern States. 



95 




Tinea rosea and 
alba. Bed and White 
Periwinkle. Plants of 
shining foliage, with 
white and dark rose 
colored flowers, which are 
produced during the 
whole summer and au- 
tumn. Two feet high. 
February till April. 

Viola odorata. Sweet 




Choicest Large English Pansy. 



Double Zinnia. 



Violet. Well known edging plant, which generally is propagated by 
dividing the plants ; but can also be raised from seed. Half foot high. 
Sow from January till March. 

Viola tricolor maxima. Large flowering choicest Pansy. This 
is one of the finest little plants in cultivation, for pots or the open 
ground. They are of endless colors and markings. When planted in 
the garden, they will show better if planted in masses, and a little 
elevated above the level of the garden. Half foot high. October till 
March. 

Zinnia elegans fl. pi. Double Zinnia. Plants of very easy cul- 
ture, flowering very profusely through the whole summer and fall ; 
producing double flowers of all colors, almost as large as the flower of 



a dahlia. 



Three feet high. 



February till August. 



CLIMBING PLANTS. 



Benineasa cerifera. Wax Gourd. A strong growing vine with 
long shaped dark crimson fruit which looks very ornamental. It is 
used for preserves. 

Cardiospermum. Balloon Vine. A quick growing climber, the 
seeds of which are in a pod shaped like a miniature balloon, there- 
fore the name. 

Cobaea Scandens. Climbing Cobaea. Large purple bell shaped 
flowers. Should be sown in a hot-bed, and not kept too moist. Place 
the seed edgewise in the ground. Twenty feet high. January till 
April. 



96 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



1 





Morning Glory. 



Mixed Thunbergia. 



Convolvolus major. Morning Glory. Well known vine with 
various handsomely colored flowers of easy culture. Grow almost any- 
where. Ten feet high. February till July. 

Ciircurbita. Ornamental Gourd. Mixed varieties of Ornamental 
Gourds of different shapes and sizes. February till April. 

Ciircurbita lagenaria dulcis. Sweet Gourd. A strong grow- 
ing vine of which the young fruits are used like Squash. February till 
April. 

Dolichos Lablab. Hyacinth Bean. 
Free growing plant, with purple and 
white flowers. March till May. 

Ipomaea Quamoclit rosea. 

Eed Cypress Yine. Very beautiful 
delicate foliage, of rapid growth, with 
scarlet flowers. 
Ipomaea Quamoclit alba. 

White Cypress Vine. The same as the 
foregoing kind, except white flowers. 
February till August. . 

Ipoimca BoiialVox. Large Flow- 
ering Evening Glory. A vine of rapid 
growth, with beautiful blue and white 
flowers, which open in the evening. 
Hyacinth Bean. Twenty feet high. February till June. 

Liatliyrus odoratus. Sweet Peas. Beautiful flowers of all colors, 
very showy. Good for cut flowers. Six feet high. December till April. 
Maurandia Barclay ana. Mixed Maurandia. A slender grow- 
ing vine of rapid growth. Bose, purple and white colors mixed. Ten 
feet high. February till April. 

Mamordica Balsamina. Balsam Apple. A climbing plant 
of very rapid growth, producing Cucumber-like fruits, with warts on 
them. They are believed to contain some medicinal virtues. They 
are put in jars with alcohol, and are used as a dressing for cuts s 
bruises, etc. 




For the Southern States. 



97 



Lea ft! a acutaiigula, Dish Kag Vine. A very rapid growing vine 
of the Gourd family. When the fruit is dry, the fibrous substance, 
which covers the seeds, can be used as a rag. February till April. 

Sechiiiiii edule. Vegetable Pear or Mirliton. A rapid growing- 
vine with grape-like leaves, of which the fruit is eaten ; there are two 
varieties, white and green. It has only one seed, and the whole fruit 
has to be planted. 

Tropseolummajiis. Nasturtium. Trailing plants with elegant 
flowers of different shades, mostly yellow and crimson, which are pro- 
duced in great abundance. Four feet high. February till April. 

Tliimbergia. Mixed Thunbergia. Very ornamental vines, with 
yellow bell shaped flowers, with dark eye. Six feet high. February 
till May. 

BULBOUS ROOTS. 

Anemones. Double flowering. Planted and treated the same 

as the Eanunculus. They are of great varieties in colors, 

Double Dutch $0 50 per dozen. 

French 100 

DaMias. Fine double named varieties. Plants so well known 
for their brilliancy, diversity of colors, and profuse flowering 
qualities, that they require no recommendation. They can be planted 
from February till May; they thrive best in rich loamy soil. They 
should be tied up to stakes, which ought to be driven into the ground 
before or when planting them. To have them flower late in the season, 
they should be planted late in spring, and the flower buds nipped off 
when they appear; treated 
in this way, they will pro- 
duce perfect flowers during 
fall. Undivided roots $4.00 
per dozen. 

Gladiolus. Hybrid Gla- 
diolus. One of the best sum- 
mer flowering bulbs ; they 
have been greatly improved 
of late years, and almost 
every color has been pro- 
duced ; tinged and blotched 
in all shades from delicate 
rose to dark vermillion. 
When planted at intervals 
during spring, they will 
flower at different times, but 
those that are planted ear- 
liest produce the finest flow- 
ers. The roots should be 
taken up in the fall. 

Hybrids mixed, 1st choice, 
10c. each, 75c. per dozen. 

Hybrids, white ground, 1st 

choice, 10c. each, $1.00 per 
dozen. 

Very fine named varieties, 
25c. each. Hybrid Gladiolus. 




s 



98 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 




Gloxinias. These are really 
bulbous green-house plants, but 
they can be cultivated in pots 
and kept in a shady place in the 
garden, or window. They are 
very beautiful, color from white 
to dark violet and crimson. The 
leaves are velvety, and on some 
varieties very large. They should 
be planted early in spring; 
require sandy ground and a good 
deal of moisture during flowering- 
time. French Hybrids strong 
bulbs. $3.00 per dozen. 

Hyacinths. (Dutch.) Double 
and single. The Hyacinth is a 

beautiful flowering bulb, well Gloxinias, 

suited for open ground or pot culture. They should be planted from 
October till February. If planted in pots, it is well to keep in a cool 
rather dark place, till they are well started when they can be placed 
in the full light and sun. Double and single, 15 cents each, SI. 50 per 
dozen. 

LrSlitina tl grin tun. Tiger Lily, a well known variety, very showy 
and of easy culture, 15 cents each. 

Liliuin tigriamm fl. pi. This is a new variety ; it is perfectly 
double, and the petals are imbricated almost as regularly as a camelia 
flower. Xovel and fine, 50 cents each. 

JAPAN LILIES. 

Ulium amatnin. Golden Band Lily. This is a very handsome 
Lily, the flowers are large and white, each petal having a yellow stripe. 
It is of easy culture. A loamy dry soil suits it best. 

Flowering bulbs from 50 to 75 cents each. 

liilinin laiicifolinm album. Pure white Japan Lily, 40 cents 
each. 





Lilium lancifolium rubrarn. 



Tuberoses, double flowering. 



For the Southern States. 



99 



Liliuan lancifolium rubrum. White and red spotted, 20 cents 
each. 

Liliuiii lancifolium roseuin. Eose spotted, 20 cents each. 

These Japan Lilies are very beautiful and fragrant; should be 
planted from October till January. Perfectly suited to this climate. 

Paeonia sinensis. Chinese or herbaceous Pseonia. Herbaceous 
plants of different colors and great beauty ; they should be planted 
during fall in a shady situation, as it flowers early in spring ; if planted 
too late will not flow T er perfectly ; 40 cents each. 

Ranunculus. Double flowering. The roots can be planted 
during fall and winter, either in the open ground or in pots. The 
French varieties are more robust than the Persian, and the flowers 
are larger. The ground should be rather dry, and if planted in the 
open ground, it will be well to have the spot a little higher than the 
bed or border. 

Persian Kanunculus . $ 25 per dozen. 

French " 50 

Scilla peruviana. These are green-house bulbs at the North, 
but here they are hardy, and do well in the open ground. There are two 
varieties, the blue and the white. They throw up a shoot, on the end of 
which the flowers appear, forming a truss. Plant from October till 
January. 40 cents each. 

Tulips. Double and Single Tulips thrive better in a more Northern 
latitude than this, but some years they flower well here, and as they are 
cheap a few flowering bulbs will pay the small amount they cost. They 
should not be planted later than December and placed very shallow 
in the ground ; not more than one third of the bulb should be covered. 
When near flowering they require a good deal of moisture. Single and 
double, 50 cents per dozen. 

Tuberoses. Double flowering. They are ornamental for the 
garden, and very valuable for making bouquets, on account of their 
pure white color, and great fragrance. Plant during the spring months. 
Strong bulbs 10 cents each, 75 cents per dozen. 



EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS. 

AUSTEALIAN BLUE GUM OK FEVEK TKEE. 

This tree is recommended on account of its anti-malarial qualities. 
Experiments made in low districts of Africa and Europe have shown 
that this tree will absorb a great deal of moisture, and destroys malaria, 
improving sickly localities and rendering them healthy. The tree 
grows very quickly, and there are many growing in this neighborhood, 
some forty feet high. They do well here, but require to be protected for 
the first and second year, in the third year the bark and leaves change, 
the latter becoming long. The best time to plant the seed is during 
the spring months. Sow the seed in boxes, filled with good sandy soil, 
cover lightly and keep moist. Best to shade the boxes till the seed com- 
mence to sprout. When the small plants have from three to four leaves 
transplant them into pots, and when one to two feet high transplant to 
the desired place. It is best to start them in pots, as this facilitates 



100 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



the transplanting. When they are sown in rows in the open ground, 
difficulty will be experienced in transplanting them, but when in pots, 
they can be easily slipped out and put where they are wanted. Seed 
per package, 10 cents, $1.00 per oz. 



-^•«» <<»> » > 



BOUQUET PAPERS. 



I keep a large and varied stock of bouquet papers, besides the dif- 
ferent kinds enumerated below ; I also have finer qualities satin, velvet 
and tarleton, ranging from $1.50 to $4.50 each; also some new styles 
called Parisian, finished in the same exquisite style as the above. 
They are very appropriate for bridal bouquets. 

PASTED CARTONS. 




Measure includes the Lace. 



No. 
4 

523 
1716 

531 

592 
1688 
1676 
1606 

518 
1610 

515 

1685 

10 

1609 



Inches in 
diameter. 

u 

4| 



5| 
54 



n 
n. 



9 
9 

9i 
10 



per doz. 

$0 15 
15 
20 
20 
20 
25 
30 
30 
35 
35 
40 
40 
40 
50 



per gross 
$1 50 



75 
00 
25 
25 
75 
00 
00 
50 
50 
00 
00 
25 
00 



No. 

1690 

552 

1677 

1622 

533 

1604 

1603 

501 

176 

549 

590 

525 

507 



Inches in 
diameter. 

10 

10| 

11 

Hi 

12 

13 

13 

14 

15 » 

16 

17 

18 

20 



per doz. 
50 
60 
60 
70 
70 
70 
70 

80 

1 20 
1 00 
1 20 
1 40 
1 50 



per gross 

4 75 

5 00 

6 25 

6 75 

7 00 
6 50 

6 50 

7 50 
12 00 

9 00 

9 00 

12 00 

15 00 



For the Southern States. 



101 



ITALIANS, with 12 Scallops. 

Measure exclusive of Lace. 





each. 
$0 10 

10 

15 

10 



per doz. 
$0 75 

90 

1 25 
1 00 



No 
31 

83 
99 



Inches in 

diameter. 

71 

'4 

n 



ITALIANS, with 24 Scallops. 

Measure exclusive of Lace. 





each. 
15 

20 

20 



per doz. 
1 50 

1 60 

1 75 






each. 

$0 10 

15 

20 



per doz. 

$1 00 

1 40 

1 80 



No. 


Inches in 
diameter. 


each. 


per doz. 


73 


9 


25 


2 25 


15 


12 


25 


2 50 



ITALIANS, with Gilt or Silver Lace, 12 Scallops. 

Measure exclusive of Lace. 



No. 
36 
44 
39 



Inches in 
diameter. 



6 gilt, 25c. each. 

6| gilt and silver 25c. each 

7 " 30c. each. 



No. 
33 
13 
15 



Inches in 
diam titer. 



8 gilt, 50c. each. 

9 " 50c. " 

9 silver, 50c. each. 



102 Eichabd Fkotscher's Ausianajg and Garden Manual 



MATTHEWS' GARDEN SEED DRILL, 




Price, $13.00 Boxed. 

A reliable Seed Drill is recognized as one of the most valuable 
implements in use. It is a great labor saver, and no one who raises 
vegetables, whether in large or small quantities, can afford to do with- 
out one. But as an unreliable drill is worse than worthless, care should 
be taken to select the best. "We therefore invite your attention to the 
Matthew's Garden Seed Drill. No better one can be procured. Medals 
and testimonials confirming its superiority over all other drills, have 
been repeatedly bestowed upon it from all quarters ; and, as it has been 
improved from time to time, it is now everywhere acknowledged to be 

THE MOST PERFECT DEILL IN USE. 

It is designed to be used in field or garden. When in operation, it 
opens the furrow, drops the seed accurately at the desired depth, covers 
it and lightly rolls it, and at the same time marks the next row, all of 
which is done, with mechanical precision, by simply propelling the 
drill forward. In this way it sows, with an evenness and rapidity im- 
possible for the most skilful hand to do, all the different varieties of 
Beet, Carrot, Onion, Turnip, Parsnip. Sage, Spinach, Sorghum, Peas, 
Beans, -Broom Corn, Fodder Corn, etc. 

It is simple in principle, and is constructed of the best material and 
in the best style and finish. The agitator stirs the seed in the hopper 
thoroughly by a positive motion, which insures continuous and uniform 
delivery, and the bottom of the hopper is made sufficiently dishing to 
sow the smallest quantity of seed. When desired, the movement of 
the agitator can be checked, and the drill may then be propelled forward 
or backward without dropping seed. A simple contrivance accurately 
gauges the uniform deposit of the seed to any required depth, thus avoid- 
ing the risk of planting at irregular depths, or so deep in places as to 
destroy the seed. The markers are made adjustable for the purpose of 
marking the rows at any desired distance apart, and they mark them 
distinctly whether the ground is even or uneven. 

Another great advantage which it possesses over any other machine 
is that it is the only drill which has an INDICATOR with the names of 
different seeds thereon. This indicator is devised to simplify the adjust- 
ment for sowing different varieties of seeds. It is securely attached to 
the side of the hopper, in plain sight, and is made use of for changing 
from sowing one kind of seed to another by simply turning it until the 
name of the seed to be planted comes up to the indicator-pin, which 



For the Southern States. 



103 



revolves the dial, attached to the bottom of the hopper, until the right 
sized hole in it for planting that seed comes directly into place. This 
ingenious invention is a great improvement over any other method in 
use, and is infinitely more convenient and reliable. 

The drill is complete in all its arrangements, and is very durable. 
There are no cams, gears, springs or belts to get out of order, nor are 
there any parts subject to the unusual wear, and, rightly used, it will last 
many years and do a vast amount of service without requiring any 
repairs. 



< «» <»* ♦» > 



MATTHEWS' HAND CULTIVATOR. 




Price, $6.50 Boxed. 



The Matthews' Hand Cultivator is one of the best implements in 
use for weeding between row crops, and for flat cultivation generally, 
and is an indispensable companion-implement to the seed drill. 

It is thoroughly constructed throughout, very durable and easy to 
operate. A boy can do as much ivith it as six men with hoes. It spreads 
from 6 to 14 inches, and will cut all the ground covered even when 
spread to its greatest extent. Its teeth are of a new and improved pat- 
tern, and thoroughly pulverize and mellow the soil. The depth of cul- 
tivating may be accurately gauged by raising or lowering the wheels, 
which is quickly done by the use of a thumb screw. 

Finding that it is sometimes preferred with two wheels, and some- 
times with one, we now make it both ways, and can therefore furnish 
it either with two wheels, or with one wheel, as desired, although, 
unless otherwise ordered, we usually send the former, which is repre- 
sented by the cut. 



104 Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Gardkx Manual 

GARDEN IMPLEMENTS. 

Improved American Garden Syringes. 

No. 2— Conservatory, (with two extra roses'! $5 00 

No. 3— Green House, ( " " ) 6 00 

No. 5— " ( " " ) 7 50 

No. 8— " ( " " ) 9 00 

HOES. 

W. A. Lyndon's Louisiana Hoe, No. 1 1 15 

No ; 2 120 

No. 3 1 25 

Oval Eye Planters' Hoe ( Polished) 6 inches 60 

( " ) 8 " 75 

Great Southern Hoe ( " )9 " 75 

D. &H.Scovill'sImp.Planters'Hoe8 " 75 

King, Briggs & Co's Scovill Pattern No. 3 65 

" " " " " 2 55 

Lane's Crescent Hoe " 1 65 

41 2 60 

Briggs & Wife's Palmetto Hoe " 1 045 

" . << "2 50 

" " '• 3 55 

Champion Hoe, (with handle) 75 

S. S. Tuttle's Socket Hoe (with handle) 80 

Two Pronged Weeding Hoe (with handle 65 

RAKES. 

Malleable Iron 11 teeth. . : 60 

" " 13 " 75 

Steel, 10 " 65 

12 " 80 

14 " - 100 

SPADES. 

Ames' Long Handled 1 25 

Porter's Long Handled 1 00 

Naylors' " " 75 

Ames' Short Handled 1 50 

Porter's" " 125 

Rowland's Short Handled 1 00 

SHOVELS. 

Rowland's Long Handled 1 00 

Ames' Short 1 40 

FORKS. 

Spading Forks 1 25 

Manure " Long Handled 1 tine ' 1 00 

" Short " 1 " 50 

POTATO HOOKS. 

Long Handled 6 tine 90 

4 " 90 



For the Southern States. 



105 



SCYTHES. 

Welded (French) 28 inches 

26 " 

Blood's Champion Grass Scythe (Gerinau Steel) 
Saynor & Cook's English (riveted) 

SICKLES. 

English (welded) No. 2 

" 3 

" (riveted back) No. 1 

( " ) "2 

( " ) "3 

French 



SHEARS. 



Hedge Shears, 10 inches 



$2.00 and 



Pruning Shears No. 1 (Weiss) • , , 

No. 2 ( " ) : 

No. 3 ( " ) 

No. 1 

1 ' 8 inches (French) 

9 " ( " ) ' 

KNIVES. 

Union Knife Go's budding, (wooden handle) 

Geo. Wostenholmes " (white bone handle) No. 1 

" " ( " " " ) No. 2 

H. & J. W. King's Pruning from 60c. to 

Saynor & Cook's " from $1 50 to 



FLOEAL TOOLS. 
LADIES' SETS. 

No. 68, 3 pieces, Hoe and Rake combined, Fork and Spade 
" 67 3 " " " " " " " " 
" 3, 4 " Best English, extra finish , 

WATERING POTS. 

6 Quarts, Japanned 



1 


50 


1 


25 


1 


25 


1 


75 





40 


45 





75 





60 





85 





40 


2 


50 


2 


25 


2 


00 


2 


25 


1 


75 


2 


00 


1 


00 


1 


50 


1 


75 





75 


1 


40 


1 


50 


1 


25 


1 


75 



10 
12 
16 
14 " " Extra Heavy, (hand made) 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Pruning Saws 50c. and 

Excelsior Weeding Hooks 

Transplanting Shovels 25c. and 

" Trowels, American from 15c, to 

" Trowels, English • 

' ' Forks 15c. and 



1 75 
1 50 

3 00 

4 50 

50 
65 

75 

1 00 

1 40 

2 00 

1 00 
30 
35 
30 
50 
25 



106 



Richard Feotscheb's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Scotch Whetstones 25 



Common " „ 

Scythe Snaths 75c. and 

Lathing Hatchets No. 2, 70c, No. 3, 

Nottingham Bill Hooks 

Wooden Hay Eakes 

Hoe Handles 20c. and 

FLOWER POTS, 

3 inch = per dozen 

4 " 

5 " ... 

6 " 

7 " 

8 " 

9 •' 

10 " 

12 " 

14 " 



SAUCERS. 

5 inch. per dozen 

6 " 

7 " 



9 
10 



25 

1 00 

75 

1 50 
25 
25 

40 
60 
75 
90 



1 


20 


1 


50 


1 


75 


2 


25 


3 


75 


5 


50 





60 





60 





80 


1 


00 


1 


20 


1 


50 



» «< ^ »» » 



nmnnM 



For the Southern States. 



107 



CHUFA. 



The following remarks on Chufa are taken from a letter written by 
N. Stansbury, Esq., to the Louisiana Sugar Bowl. By my own 
experience I can indorse all what is said, and recommend to all who 
have not planted the "Chufa," to give it a trial. It is the best feed to 
fatten hogs. 

They can be planted from March to June. They will yield from 
125 to 150 bbls. per acre, with good cultivation. They are very produc- 
tive and the best feed to fatten hogs. One bbl. will put as much fat on 
the ribs of a hog as two of corn. The nut has a fine flavor, nearly equal 
to the pecan. 

They should be planted in rows two feet apart, and from 10 to 12 
inches in the row. When planted this way beds should be used and a 
deep water furrow left at a distance of twelve or fifteen feet. The better 
plan would be to plant three feet apart and ten inches in the drill, as 
this would afford a water furrow and not materially lessen the yield. 
The nuts to be reserved for seed or other purposes should be gathered 
before November, or the advance of frost, as the top then dies and the 
nuts will not come up with the spires. 

All the nuts not needed for seed will remain perfectly sound in the 
ground from September until April, where the hogs can eat at will. 
The nut sends up a single spire so much like coco, it might deceive even 
an experienced eye at its first appearance. Around this spire a multi- 
tude of others form rapidly. At the foot of each spire is the nut, never 
more than two inches in the ground, and seldom a half inch. The 
cluster of spires will equal in diameter the head of a flower barrel. As 
the whole surface of the ground will be nearly covered by nuts, one may 
form some idea of the yield. To lift them up, you have only to gather 
all the spires as a lady does her hair when combing it, and a slight pull 
will bring the entire cluster up with nine-tenths of the nuts attached. 
As very little dirt adheres to the roots, the nuts can be threshed off 
quite easily and rapidly. A boy of twelve or fifteen years, with two or 
three small children could gather and thresh out four or five barrels 
daily. Unlike the coco, the chufa will die out in. two or three years, if 
neglected or suffered to be choked with w T eeds or grass. 

Price per Qt. Per Gall. Per Bushel. 



-*-*»>-«»-»- 



THE JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE. 

(Helian thus Tuberosus.) 
By E. M. Hudson. 



Used as a vegetable, the Jerusalem Artichoke makes a delicious 
pickle ; and when cooked, as hereafter directed, it is esteemed by con- 
noisseurs as a luxury. 

Wash and scrape or pare them ; boil in milk and water till they 
are soft, which will be from fifteen to thirty minutes. Take them out 
and stew them a few minutes in a sauce made by rolling a bit of butter 
of the size of a walnut in flour, mixed with half a pint of cream or milk, 
and seasoned with pepper, salt or grated nutmeg. 



108 



Richard Fsotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



It is as a forage or root crop, however, that this Artichoke posses- 
ses unusual .merit for the farmer. Its habit may be styled self -propa- 
gating ; for when once established it is almost perpetual ; and this gives 
it a peculiar value. It will grow on exceedingly poor land and produce 
well ; while on rich land the yield is enormous. Three bushels of tubers 
are amply sufficient to plant an acre, the large ones being cut into 
pieces with two or three eyes like potatoes. The land should be 
thoroughly ploughed ; and from January to April they should be 
planted in furrows about three to four feet apart, dropping the tubers 
about 18 inches" apart, and covering with a plough. 

When they are well up, plough them as you would corn ; and when 
about a foot high, plough them again, throwing a furrow to each side, 
and you are done cultivating them forever. The first year they will 
yield a good crop, from five to eight hundred bushels, and will improve 
for two or three years, if the soil is good, till they double the product 
of the first year. On piney-woods land seven hundred bushels to the 
acre is only a fair yield ; on very rich land 1500 to 2000 bushels, it is said, 
have been produced. In August the tops may be cut and cured for hay, 
which is quite equal to corn fodder, or may be fed green, soiled. The yield 
is large and the tops are eagerly eaten by cattle, horses and mules. 
The tops, if cut, should be taken off about a foot from the ground. One 
cutting does not at all affect the yield of the tubers. In November the 
hogs should be turned in to harvest the tubers for themselves, and may 
remain on them till March. In carbonacious matter,— starch or its 
equivalent— they are but a trifle inferior to potatoes, as will be seen 
from the following table : 

In 1000 parts :— Flesh Formers. Fat Formers. 

Potatoes 14 189 

Carrots. 6. . . • 66 

Parsnips > 12 70 

Mangolds 2 102 

Sugar Beets 3 136 

White Turnips 1 40 

■ Artichokes 10 188 

Thus it will be seen that in 1000 parts, potatoes contain 203 parts of 
nutriment and artichokes 198 parts ; while turnips contain only 41 parts. 
Yet the turnip, above all roots, has made English agriculture progressive, 
because they may be fed on the land without gathering. The artichoke 
is unaffected in the ground by any amount of cold ; and indeed should 
always remain there until gathered for use or planting. 

The enormous yield, the small amount of labor in cultivation, and 
the nutritious character of the tubers make them the most economical 
food for hogs that can possibly be grown. And the hogs, if suffered to 
root them, will be an advantage to them, by breaking up and softening 
the soil as far down as it is pulverized. Sows with sucMingpigs shouldnot 
go on them, as the artichokes are said to injure the quality of the milk so 
as to cause suckling pigs to dwindle ; but as soon as they are weaned 
the pigs will do finely by rooting for their living. These artichokes are 
also the healthiest food that hogs can have ; and they need nothing else 
but salt, ashes and water when fed on them. 

Price per Qt. per Gall. per Bushel. 



For the Southern States. 



109 



A FEW PEACTICAL SUGGESTIONS 

on the preparation of lands for 

GROWING STRAWBERRIES, 

with metliod of planting and selection of varieties. 
By S. M. WIGGINS. 



To write a practical article on Strawberry culture, knowing that it 
will meet the eyes of practical men who for years have been engaged in 
the business of growing and disseminating this popular and delicious 
fruit, is an undertaking fraught with peril to the writer. "We know that 
we will be criticized, but we feel that our readers will not be too harsh, 
and on our part will endeavor to receive them with meekness and profit 
by the same. 

The time for preparation. — There is a time for all things, and the 
preparation of the land by cleansing and fertilizing is the most im- 
portant, how to do this practically and economically, is in our view most 
important. We have much land, especially our alluvium, which is 
overrun with noxious weeds and grasses, and which it is necessary to 
destroy. To accomplish this is a point to study ; our experience is that 
the common Cow Pea will do this cheaper than anything else. Take 
a piece of land, for instance, on which a crop of Potatoes, Winter Oats 
or Turnips has been harvested, plow and sow the Peas broadcast dur- 
ing the latter part of May, or early part of June, and you at once have 
a crop which will accomplish both the cleaning and fertilizing cheaper 
than any method we are yet acquainted with. 

# Further preparation.— -During the months of August and Septem- 
ber, your Peas, having attained their full growth, may be spaded in, 
this is probably the best where a small area is to be planted. If not 
practicable to do this, procure a roller, which may be made cheaply 
from a log of two feet in diameter, roll thoroughly and smoothly and 
follow after with a turning plow, using a circular colter or disc lapping 
the furrows and bringing the vegetation out of sight. Pass the roller 
over the land and leave all smooth. In most cases this will be all of 
the fertilization necessary for the first season. And will be found more 
economical than any method we are acquainted with. 

Preparation for planting. — A month or six weeks will now elapse, 
which will bring the Strawberry planter to a point when he will feel it 
necessary to set out the young plants. The green crop has rotted suf- 
ficiently and all will depend on the weather. If the season is propi- 
tious and timely rains have fallen, then the quicker the work is com- 
menced the greater certainty he will have of repeating a crop the first 
season. 

The land should be well plowed and subsoiled, the more thorough- 
ly this is done the better. Do not bury the fertilizing too deep, but the 
subsoiler may go as deep as possible ; a deep soil means freedom from 
the effects of draught, better rooted and more vigorous plants, after- 



wwiwiwmc: 



110 



Richard Fbotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



wards harrow the surface well with a revolving harrow and smooth with 
a board. 

Ditching. — In all low lying lands ditches should be opened and the 
field laid off in lands of equal size, this will systematise your operations 
and warm the soil. All low lands will be too cold unless well drained ; 
and the Strawberry, though a lover of water, will not do well in cold, 
wet soils. 

Field planting. — Your ground being ready, plants dug, put in a con- 
venient place and protected from the dry atmosphere, prepare a bath of 
mud and water and squirt the roots thoroughly to prevent drying. Clip 
off the long roots with a sharp knife or pair of shears, and drop about one 
foot apart in rows three feet wide, this may be done hy children, experi- 
enced and careful persons may follow as quickly as possible, opening 
the ground with a stout paddle or steel hand planter, about three inches 
in width spreading the roots as much as possible and pressing the earth 
firmly about the plant, care should be taken to have the crown entirely 
above the surface. Always use a line and keep on the same side, that 
the row may be straight, a crooked row always interferes with careful 
cultivation. Garden culture is similar in every respect, only they may 
be planted much closer and on beds 4 feet in width, a space being left 
for walks on each side about two feet in width, this will prevent much 
trampling of the soil and give room for the pickers. 

Varieties.— There are two hundred approved kinds, more or less, 
nearly all have their champions. But all practical fruit growers have 
about come to the conclusion, that if all were destroyed, except the old 
fashioned Wilson's Albany, no one would be the loser. We do not 
concur in so sweeping a verdict on all new kinds, but for Louisiana a 
person will not go far out of the way if he adopt the Wilson until he is 
satisfied that he has something better. 

Longicoi^th's Prolific. It seems like going back a half a century to 
recommend the Longworth, but we consider it among the most valuable 
as a profitable kind for market, hardy, prolific, but not first class for 
eating— too sour. 

Imperial. — Were we called on to decide upon the best berry for the 
table and especially valuable as a family fruit we would choose this 
variety above all. It is too soft for market however, unless it can be 
carried by hand ; not very prolific, unless cultured in stools ; stands our 
climate well and runs tremendously. A friend obtained over three 
hundred plants from two the first season. 

Mary Stuart— A. pistillate variety originating in Louisiana ; must be 
planted near some staminate plant to produce fruit, Berry of excellent 
quality and flavor in a dry season, plant hardy, prolific and healthy 
like all high flavored kinds, too soft for a distant market. 

Charles Doicning—HsLS many friends, and deservedly so. Plant 
hardy in Louisiana, lives well through our trying summer, produces a 
very large fine flavored berry, on foot stalks well off the ground ; fruit 
most too soft for long transit. 

Captain Jade— Also very promising, lived well through the summer 
of 1879, and we believe it has a future. Hardy and vigorous, berries 
medium and about the same quality as the Wilson Albany. 



Foe the Southern States. 



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Crescent Seedling. Not sufficiently tested to be recommended for 
general planting, big stories are written of its prolific qualities, we will 
continue experimenting. Being a pistillate this must also be fertilized 
with perfect kinds. 

G-reat American. — Largest berry known with us, it has proved 
worthless. 

Sharpless.—Yevy promising berry, large, sweet and well colored. 
We think it worthy of a place in every collection, not sufficiently tested, 
however, to plant on a large scale. 

We are testing about twelve new and highly lauded kinds, if the 
season is propitious will be able to write more understanding^ of their 
merits during the season of 1880. Like all enthusiasts and lovers of 
fruit we continue to plant even in the face of almost certain failureof 
berries which have received high recommendations from noted northern 
small fruit growers, hoping to acclimatize the plants and produce some- 
thing better than we have. Our success belong to the fruit loving 
citizens of the South. Our failures are our own. Strawberry growing 
is in its infancy in Louisiana, and we think it will yet bring many 
thousands of dollars every year to our State, which now goes elsewhere. 
We have the soil, climate, easy transportation, a good market, and 
many advantages unknown to less favored localities. Why then should 
we not stand prominent in the culture of small fruits? We believe 
we will. To pursue this subject in all its details is already occupying 
too much space. 



INDEX 



Page. 

Almanac 5 to 16 

Artichoke 21 

Asparagus 21 

Beans 22 and 23 

Beets ; . . . 24 and 25 

Borecole or Kale 25 

Broccoli 26 

Brussels Sprouts 26 

Bulbous Roots^ . 97 to 99 

Bouquet Papers. . . 100 to 101 

Cabbage 26 to 29 

Cauliflower 30 to 32 

Carrot .32 and 33 

Celery 33 and 34 

Chervil ;.... ...35 

Collards 35 

Corn Salad 35 

Corn 35 and 36 

Cucumbers. . _ .36 and 37 

Chufa 107 

Climbing Plants 95 

Directions for Planting .... i . 64 to 71 

Eggplant f. 38 

Endive ..38 

Eucalyptus 99 

Flower Seeds . . . . , 81 to 97 

Grass and Field Seeds 62 to 64 

Garden Implements 104 to 106 

Herb Seeds . 62 

Hints on Orange Culture 81 

! Hot Bed 18 

Jerusalem Artichoke 107 and 108 



Page. 

Kohlrabi 39 

Leek.: 39 

Lettuce 39 to 41 

Letter on Alfalfa 78 to 80 

r 

Lilies -. . r 98 

Melon, Musk 41 and 42 

Melon, Water . ..... 42 and 43 

Mustard 43 

Mathew's Seed Drill 102 

Mathew's Hand Cultivator 103 

Nasturtium ) 44 

Okra 44 

Onion 45 and 46 

Parsley 46 

Peas 46 to 49 

Pepper 49 and 50 

Potatoes 50 to 54 

Pumpkin 54 

Price List .72 to 77 

Radish iV. . • 55 and 56 

Roquette 56 

Spinach 56 

Sorrel. 57 

Squash 57 

Suggestions on Strawberriesl09 to 111 

Seeds by Mail 4 

Sowing Seeds .10 

Tomato 58 and 59 

Turnip 59 to 62 

Table showing quantity of seed 

required to the acre 20 

Vegetable Garden 17 



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I call the attention of my customers to the fact that Seed 
Potatoes are a speciality with me. I have introduced all the \ 
new kinds in the market here, and have ^ried many varieties 
which came with high reputation from the East, but failed to 
give satisfaction here. 

During planting season I always keep on hand a large 
stock of seed potatoes grown East, which are very iiue this year 
and prices low in comparison with former years. 

At the last Exhibition of the Fruit Growers Association 
held in July, I received a Grand Diploma for the best samples 
of Early Rose, Peerless and Snowflake Potatoes exhibited ; they 
were grown by ones of my customers, from seed obtained with 
me. No good crop of potatoes can be groivnfrom inferior seed. 



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